Category Archives: Abstracts

9/2021 (1)

Janusz Grygieńć 

Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland. 

Email: jgrygienc@umk.pl 

 

SHOULD WE FEAR EPISTEMIC DEPENDENCE (AND HOW MUCH)?

 

ABSTRACT 

In recent years, interest in the problem of expert knowledge has intensified among social scientists. One of the topics more frequently addressed in this context is the relationship between experts and laypeople. This paper examines this issue from the perspective of the concept of epistemic dependence formulated by John Hardwig. I argue that this concept poses a severe challenge to the vision of scientific inquiry dominant in the scientific literature and to the democratic idea of politics. I examine three strategies encountered in the literature for responding to this challenge: individualist, institutional, and epistocratic. Alvin Goldman advocates the first one, as he presents strategies at the disposal of a layman facing two conflicting expert opinions. The second is the belief in the scientific community’s potential to resolve all controversies and protect non-specialists from confronting them. The third is to eliminate epistemic dependence by including only those with sufficient practical experience in expert discussions. In the end, I conclude that the problem of epistemic dependence has no suitable solution. We should place our hopes only with strategies for circumventing it rather than confronting it. 

Keywords: epistemic dependence, experts, expertise, democracy, social epistemology. 

 

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Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik 

John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

Email: alekka@kul.pl 

 

ACADEMIC INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND ITS NORMS PRICE

 

ABSTRACT 

Twenty five years ago John Ziman formulated the thesis that academic science and industrial science merge into one system of post-academic and at the same time post-industrial science, in which the Mertonian norms of academic science expressed by the acronym CUDOS (communism, universalism, disinterestedness, organized scepticism) give way to the norms of industrial science expressed by the acronym PLACE (proprietary, local, authoritarian, commissioned, expert). In this article, I defend the thesis that this system has evolved into a system of academic industrial science, the norms of which can be expressed with the acronym PRICE: patron relevant, innovative, competitive, econometrical. Thus, reforming academic science is also its re-norming in terms of both ethics and the organization of research. The ethics of scientific research is transformed into the ethics of knowledge production. Scientific institutions are seen as producers of knowledge which is an “epistemic commodity.” A particular of knowledge is needed when it satisfies the needs of “consumers.” Scientists are then „elements” of the knowledge production process, and the process itself is subject to market calculations. This does not undermine the epistemic value of a given research project and its results, but it leads to controversial consequences, including fragmentation and aspectualization of knowledge, linking research directions with the interests of social powers, and ignoring transformative criticism. As a result, sometimes what was treated in the Mertonian science as a threat or an offense against the ethos of science turns out to be the rational behavior of an entrepreneur operating on the market of epistemic goods and services. Academic industrial science is also unable to fulfil non-instrumental roles in society (shaping worldviews, supporting social rationality, providing independent experts) that academic science performed. Attempts to prevent these problems or threats will be doomed to failure in advance, because countermeasures are based on a different understanding of knowledge itself. 

Keywords: academic science, industrial science, academic industrial science, research ethics, knowledge production ethics, knowledge as an epistemic commodity, non-instrumental roles of science. 

 

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Rafał Paweł Wierzchosławski 

Liberal Arts and Sciences, Collegium Historicum, Poznań, Poland. 

Email: rafalpawelwie@gmail.com

 

PROTESTANT SCIENCE, ELECTIVE MODERNISM AND EXPERT KNOWLEDGE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FUNCTIONING OF SCIENCE OUTSIDE THE ACADEMY 

 

ABSTRACT 

In this article, I reflect on recent discussions of the methodological status of scientific knowledge within and outside the Academy. I draw attention to the problem of declining public trust in science (risk and fear society) and the phenomenon of post-truth. In the context of these issues, I present three positions whose authors define the relationship between official academic science in relation to other forms of knowledge (lay people) and forms of knowledge use outside the Academy (politics). The first position termed “elective modernism” was formulated by Harry Collins and Robert Evans in the context of discussions of the third wave of science disputes. Elective modernism defines the way in which policy decisions are made on the recommendations of scholars who have a methodological self-awareness of the possibilities and limitations of scientific knowledge. The second position is Steve Fuller's proposal of protestant science as a form of science in the context of posttruth conditions. In this view, knowledge can be produced by anyone, but it must meet certain specified scientific criteria. The third position is the view of expert knowledge proposed by Mark R. Brown, as a representation of various worldview or cultural options, whose representatives commission experts to make appropriate recommendations for certain political decisions. 

Key words: Protestant science, academic rent, post-truth condition, customized science, third wave of science studies, expert knowledge, social conditions of science, politics of science, representation, Steve Fuller, Harry Collins, Robert Evans, Mark R. Brown, risk society, fear society. 

 

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Marcelina Zuber 

Institute of Sociology, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3, 51–149 Wrocław, Poland.

Email: marcelina.zuber@uwr.edu.pl 

 

SCIENTISTS TO THE CHALLENGES OF MODERNITY: THE “COMMUNISM” OF THE SCIENTISTS’ ETHOS AS AN ETHICAL NORM OR THE REGULATING PRINCIPLE OF RESEARCH PRACTICE 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article attempts to establish the role that may be presently played by Merton’s concept of scientific ethos, and especially his norm of “communism” in describing and explaining the mechanisms of modern science’s functioning. Merton introduces scientific ethos’ norms as ethical and technological, and therefore truly regulating the practice of research. In this context especially important is the role played by the norm of “communism,” which orders to share research results with all research community and society. This article presents two visions of research community’s functioning alternative to Merton’s concetion: Pierre Bourdieu’s conception of” le champ scientifique,” and Bruno Latour’s and Steve Woolgar’s conceptions of conversion of capital within the “cycle of credibility.” None of these concepts feature research practice as organised by “communism.” The consideration of roles of historically evolving models of practicing science (amateur, academic, professional, post-academic) is crucial for a precise description of the rules of functioning in science. Abiding by the rule of communism is possible only in the academic model, whereas modern researchers increasingly often function either within corporations (professional model), or remain in the academia while operating on private funds (post-academic model). Following the rule of communism, even as a moral guideline, is not possible in these circumstances. 

Keywords: scientists’ ethos, Robert Merton, Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar, academic, post-academic model of practicising science, John Ziman, Sheldon Krimsky. 

 

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Andrzej Stawicki 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: andrzej.stawicki@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE ON THE BORDER OF SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN A SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVE. THE CASE OF POLISH HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article presents conclusions from research on changes in the practice of creating knowledge in the social sciences and humanities, resulting from research cooperation with the socio-economic environment. The research focused primarily on the impact of such collaboration on the advancement of scientific knowledge in these fields. The theoretical framework adopted in the analysis is the concept of science as an autopoietic, social system, derived from the sociological theory of Niklas Luhmann (presented in his Die Wissenschaft der Gesellschaft, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1990). 

According to the results of the study, the cooperation of the science system with other social subsystems in its environment significantly affects both the practices of creating knowledge and its ultimate character. Such knowledge, under certain conditions, can become an element of scientific communication, but there are some limitations that are associated with differentthat rationalities of cooperating subsystems. An important barrier is the subordination of the research process to the needs of external systems, which, combined with the high selectivity of the science system, means that knowledge generated in cooperation, mainly of an operational nature, is not accepted by the science system. However, there is a great potential for this type of practice because the knowledge thus generated, after an appropriate translation into the system code of science and embedding it in its wider context, can significantly enrich it, among others, with otherwise inaccessible empirical data and different points of view that may become a basis for further scientific research. Research shows that for many representatives of the social sciences and humanities this potential is effectively used. 

Keywords: Social sciences and humanities, Mode 2 of knowledge production, autopoiesis of the science system, Social Systems Theory, cooperation between science and its environment. 

 

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Katarzyna Krzemińska 

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków, Poland.

Email: katarzyna.krzeminska@student.uj.edu.pl 

 

THE SOCIAL CREATION OF DEMARCATION CRITERIA BETWEEN SCIENCE AND PSEUDOSCIENCE 

 

ABSTRACT 

In the paper I address the problem of consolidation of the borders of the world of science by scientific institutions—in this case, Polish scientific societies of various fields. Basing on the analysis of the statutes of selected societies, I formulate a list of research questions that concern the role of scientific societies in distinguishing be tween what is considered scientific and what is not. These questions can be used in a more in-depth research. I adopt a constructivist perspective, focus on the ways in which science is produced and separated from pseudoscience, and do not address the (in)accuracy of claims rejected by the scientific world. 

Keywords: sociology of science, scientific societies, pseudoscience, science, social institutions. 

 

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Józef Dębowski 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Kurta Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn, Poland.

Email: jozdeb@poczta.onet.pl 

 

ON CLASSICAL TRUTH, POST-TRUTH AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SOURCENESS 

 

ABSTRACT 

In this paper, I present a short 10-point characteristics of the classical conception of truth. Subsequently I point to the importance and comprehensive usefulness of this truth, among others, to the possibility of applying it in some virtual environments, e.g., in those which include virtual objects of types A and C. I also emphasize that—independently of views of promotors and creators of the “post-truth era” (e.g. the will of politicians, propagandists and the authors of conspiracy theories)—truth as it is grasped in the classical theory is in principle non-withdrawable from social discourse, including its philosophical and scientific fields. 

Keywords: truth, post-truth, reality, virtual reality, thought, cognition, knowledge, realism, objectivism, correspondence theory of truth, strong correspondence, weak correspondence. 

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka 

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: mczarnocka@ifispan.edu.pl 

 

THE NATURE OF POST-TRUTH

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper demonstrates a close relationship of post-truth to pragmatic truth as William James put it. As such post-truth cannot be treated—as it is commonly perceived—as a falsehood in the sense given it by the classical idea of truth. Post-truth is not a classical cognitive value, but a means of action, more concretely, a means of realizing interests of its operator by using the method of cognitive camouflage; it means that post-truth is disguised as a truth in its classical (correspondence) sense, but it only seemingly communicates in the objective way (i.e., impartially and nonsubjectively) real facts. In my view, the present eruption of post-truths is an effect of the spreading of the pragmatic system of values and infecting by it the whole public sphere and, in consequence, also individual principles and norms of action. 

Keywords: post-truth, pragmatic truth, William James, particular interest. 

 

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Tomasz Walczyk 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: tomasz.walczyk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

 

THE ISSUE OF EXTENDED KNOWLEDGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXTENDED EPISTEMOLOGY AND TELEPISTEMOLOGY 

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of this paper is to indicate the preliminary conditions that should be met by the concept of extended knowledge. Cognitive artifacts undoubtedly affect human cognition and knowledge. Research on knowledge should therefore take into account significant technological changes. In this paper, I make use of the concept of the Extended Mind, and in epistemological research, I use the reliabilist theories of justification. The effect of this combination is the analysis of the phenomenon of extended knowledge on the examples of extended perception and extended memory. Research conducted in the field of extended epistemology and telepistemology provides a significant support. 

Keywords: extended knowledge, extended mind, telepistemology, extended epistemology, extended cognitive system, telerobotic knowledge, augmented reality. 

 

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Marcin Trybulec 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: marcin.trybulec@umcs.pl 

 

TOWARDS THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF COGNITIVE ARTIFACTS

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper aims to justify the need for a philosophical reflection concerning the concept of cognitive artifact, as it is used in situated cognition, and, first of all, for conceptualize and defining them. I tentatively call this area “the epistemology of cognitive artifacts”. The paper forms the problem of reification of the cognitive artifacts and the problem of amplification in describing the cognitive impact of the artifacts. Additionally, the article discusses the issue of nonrepresentational artifacts and singles out a new class of artifacts which I call metacognitive artifacts. 

Keywords: cognitive artifacts, nonrepresentational artifacts, metacognitive artifacts, dynamic artifacts, internal artifacts, situated cognition, epistemology of cognitive artifacts. 

 

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Maciej Wodziński, Marek Hetmański 

Maciej Wodziński — Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: maciek.wodzinski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

Marek Hetmański — Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: marek hetmanski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

 

EXPERT KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE BY EXPERIENCE IN THE DOMAIN OF AUTISM 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article presents conceptions and theories of expert knowledge, as well as discussions on the epistemological status of expert knowledge, cognitive competences falling within the scope of expertise and expert authority. They are treated as a kind of extra-institutional knowledge, referring only to a small extent to the scientific knowledge and academic circles. The positions of Alvin Goldman, Harry Collins and R. Evans, Z. Majdik and W. Keith, T. Burge and J. Shanteau on the validity of expert knowledge and methods of its justification are presented. The paper points to the problematic nature and certain limitations of the traditional perspective on the credibility of expert knowledge and expert authority. On the example of the phenomenon of the autism spectrum and traditional judgments about it—in particular, expert opinions issued about people covered by it, as well as common opinions and stereotypes— the discussion on the changes taking place in this field of knowledge and social practice is presented. Conceptions of expertise by experience in the subject of autism are discussed, including the so-called self-advocacy and self-advocacy scientists. These new cognitive attitudes and social functions of autism spectrum experts are also analyzed from the point of view of the epistemological credibility of this type of knowledge and competence. 

Keywords: Expert knowledge, expertise, knowledge justification, cognitive competences, expert authority, expertise by experience, autism spectrum. 

 

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Jerzy Gołosz 

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland.

Email: jerzy.golosz@uj.edu.pl

 

THE PYTHAGOREANS, OR AN APOLOGIA FOR METAPHYSICS

 

ABSTRACT 

This paper attempts to demonstrate that the conviction about the harmony and order of the world was a fundamental metaphysical principle of the Pythagoreans. This harmony and order were primarily sought in the structures of arithmetics, yet following the discovery of incommensurable magnitudes (irrational numbers, as we now call them), the Pythagoreans began to see geometrical structure as a fundamental part of the world. On the example of the Pythagoreans’ metaphysics and science, the paper shows the mutual relations between metaphysics and science. It demonstrates—on the one hand—the necessity of the first as a guide for the latter, and—on the other—how our scientific research can change its basic metaphysical principles when these are found to be inappropriate. The paper also tries to show the need for a realistic approach in our scientific research by means of the same example of the Pythagoreans, that is, the need to discern something which is below the surface appearance. 

Keywords: Pythagoreans; metaphysics; science; scientific realism; philosophy of science; basic metaphysics; interpretative metaphysics. 

 

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Marek Maciejczak 

Warsaw University of Technology, Plac Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: marmaciejczak@poczta.onet.pl 

 

THE CONTEXT OF HABITATUALITY IN THE HUSSERLIAN THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS 

 

ABSTRACT 

Consciousness was the guiding thread of Edmund Husserl's phenomenological investigations. He understood it as a critique of experience and the metaphysics and science based on it. Phenomenology is a critique of cognition, a method of investigation and questioning. In his later writings Husserl defined consciousness as a “system of intentional functions,” a “system of intentional operations.” Its correlate is a coherent and regularized world. One of the most important aspects of the system of intentional functions are habitualities—patterns, mental representations which arise in the process of “typification” and henceforth guide our ordinary thinking and acting. Thanks to them, the type of object, its features and properties are predetermined and, in principle, the ways of knowing it are determined. My task is to characterize the broad context of habituality formation, that is, the stream of consciousness and the possibilities of feeling and movement of the bodily subject. I will discuss in turn the temporal structure of experience and its dependence on the movement and action of the bodily subject, and then characterize the form of general intimacy with the world. It is in this context of “indeterminate reality” that the constitution and evocation of the deposited sense, the anticipation of the type of object and its qualities play out. In conclusion, I will make some remarks about habituality as a source of empirical concepts. 

Keywords: Husserl, consciousness, habitualities, typification, empirical concepts. empiryczne. 

 

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Krzysztof Sołoducha 

Military University of Technology, gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland. 

Email: krzysztof.soloducha@wat.edu.pl

 

SOME REMARKS ON NATURALISTIC ATTEMPS TO RATIONALISE HERMENEUTICS

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of the text is to consider Gianni Vattimo’s claim that hermeneutics needs to be more rational due to its criticised relativism and aestheticism. From this perspective, the author considers the projects proposed by Bartosz Brożek and Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, based on the assumption that the cognitive phenomena underlying the understanding of human behaviour and the resulting artefacts can be described using naturalistic methods. Finally, the question is considered whether these attempts, coming from outside the hermeneutic movement, offer hope for eliminating the flaws of hermeneutics mentioned by Vattimo, and what are the prospects for further research on this issue. 

Keywords: hermeneutics, rationalisation of hermeneutics, philosophy of interpretation, methodology of humanities, naturalism, dataism, performative humanities, digital humanities, pedagogy. 

 

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Damian Winczewski 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: damian.winczewski@gmail.com

 

DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM AFTER „DIAMANT”: SCIENTIFIC DIALECTICAL ONTOLOGY AND NATURAL MATERIALISM

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of the article is to reconstruct the cardinal theses and assumptions of the materialistic-dialectical ontology in the post-Stalinist Marxist scientific philosophy, often described as "Eastern Marxism". Basing on the source literature covering the works of the most eminent Polish (Stefan Amsterdamski, Stanisław Butryn, Helena Eilstein, Władysław Krajewski, Jan Such, Wiesław Sztumski and others) and Soviet (Fedosseyev, Konstantinov, Szeptulin, Rubinshtajn, etc.) philosophers which studied the links between dialectical materialism and natural sciences, I claim that postwar Marxist scientism clarifies the concise intuitions of the classics of Marxism regarding the nature and assumptions of dialectical materialism, especially the dialectic of nature. Contrary to the current interpretations of the sources of dogmatism in Marxism as the dominant ontological assumption of dialectical and natural materialism, according to these findings, it turns out that after its post-war modernization, the dialectical ontology was cleared of numerous dogmas and misunderstandings. Moreover, it turns out to be consistent with the general assumptions of the anti-Stalinist Marxist social and political philosophy. 

Keywords: Dialectical materialism, Engels, ontology, scientific philosophy, Marxism, natural sciences.

 

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Alina Bernadetta Jagiełłowicz 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3, 51–149 Wrocław, Poland.

Email: alina.jagiellowicz@uwr.edu.pl 

 

ENGAGED PHILOSOPHY OF HEALTH PROTECTION

 

ABSTRACT

The text considers the concept of engaged philosophy of health protection. The recognized precursor of this philosophy is Julian Aleksandrowicz, a Polish doctor and humanist. Moral problems of the contemporary world, developed in the aspect of ultratechnology and information, are a discursive background of the presented analysis. The paper highlights a need of revaluating the neopositivitist legacy and systemic projects of pro-health methodology. The methodology includes the ideas of health protection at the individual’s level as well as of implementing order and peace in global society. According to this concept the aim can be achieved through integrating the scientific–technical revolution with the humanistic one and with the holistic interpretation of health. Health is defined in the category of emergent, dynamic and vital whole, reached as a synergic effect. In the model of the engaged philosophy the idea of self-creation assumes the value of „subjective health,” its counterweight is “objectified disease.” It is not indifferent to the ethical dimension of choice between life or death, determined in the character of an exclusive alternative. The study uses the method of qualitative research. The basic theses of engaged philosophy , defined in the light of the health care problem have been justified. 

Keywords: engaged philosophy, emergency, synergic effect, health care, peace. 

 

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Mariusz Mazurek 

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: mmazurek@ifispan.edu.pl 

 

CZESŁAW BIAŁOBRZESKI—PHYSICIST AND PHILOSOPHER

 

ABSTRACT 

In the first part of the article, I reconstruct the philosophical thoughts of Czesław Białobrzeski, a Polish philosophizing physicist. In the second part, I outline his biography and contribution to the development of physics. Philosophical reflections of Białobrzeski formed based on the leading issues in physics of the late 19th and mainly 20th century. He carried out his considerations in close connection to his scientific practice. The activity of the Polish scientist takes place in the formation and development period of quantum mechanics. Białobrzeski, similarly to many other physicists of the time, was well aware of the necessity of coherent explanation of the fundamentally new phenomena of the quantum mechanics. His take on the subject is rather original—he referred to the classical, philosophical theory of categories and proposed its ontological interpretation. 

Keywords: Czesław Białobrzeski, philosophy of nature, philosophy of physics, ontology, causality, potentiality. 

 

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Marek Błaszczyk 

Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 3, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

Email: marek_blaszczyk@onet.eu 

 

TOWARDS THE PROBLEM OF THE SENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper critically considers Alfried Längle’s view presented in his book Gdy rodzi się pytanie o sens. Praktyczne zastosowanie logoterapii [When the Question of Sense Arises. The Practical Application of Logotherapy] (Warszawa 2016). It invites to reflection focused on the problem of the sense of existence. 

Keywords: human being, existence, existentialism, sense, happiness. 

 

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Sebastian Kozera 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: sebastiankozera@o2.pl 

 

SUPERINTELLIGENT BEINGS AS A SOURCE OF AN EXISTENTIAL THREAT ACCORDING TO NICK BOSTROM 

 

ABSTRACT 

This article presents Nick Bostrom’s considerations of the future included in his book Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Bostrom studies such issues as determining the hypothetic ways of attaining superintelligence, its nature and different aspects of this technology. He shows threats regarding such powerful systems, as well as constructing strategies of preventing undesirable activities of superintelligent beings. Bostrom’s input is an important part of present discussion concerning the development of artificial intelligence and its ethical problems. 

Keywords: superintelligence, artificial intelligence, orthogonality thesis, instrumental convergence thesis, control methods. 

 

 

8/2020 (2)

Andrzej Łukasik

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: lukasik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

ON PHYSICISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The article analyses physicists’ attitudes towards philosophy on the examples of the positions of eminent theorists. There are two physicists’ philosophical attitudes towards philosophy: pro-philosophical (Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, von Weizsäcker, Penrose, Rovelli) and anti-philosophical (Weinberg, Hawking, Feynman). I analyse some physicists' arguments for or against philosophy. It is demonstrated that physicists are most critical of all philosophical conceptions that accept a priori factors in cognition, while those who recognize the significance of philosophy for science most often refer to the Pythagorean-Platonic tradition as the proper basis for understanding modern physics.

Keywords: physics, philosophy, apriorism, positivism, Platonism, beauty.

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

 

MAX SCHELER’S PLURALISTIC CONCEPTION OF KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

This article aims to reconstruct Max Scheler’s conception of three types of knowledge, outlined in his late work Philosophical Perspectives (1928). Scheler distinguished three kinds of knowledge: empirical, used to exercise control over nature, eidetic (essential) and metaphysical. I review the epistemological criteria that underlie this distinction, and its functionalistic assumptions. In the article’s polemic part I accuse Scheler of a) crypto-dualism in his theory of knowledge, which draws insufficient distinctions between metaphysical and eidetic knowledge; b) totally omitting the status of the humanities in his classification of knowledge types; c) consistently developing a philosophy of knowledge without resort to the research tools offered by the philosophy of science, which takes such analyses out of their social and historical context (i.e., how knowledge is created in today’s scientific communities).

Keywords: types of knowledge, induction, essence, metaphysics, philosophical anthropology, Max Scheler.

 

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Pavlo Sodomora

Department of Latin and Foreign Languages, Lviv; Danylo Halytsky National Medical University, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Department of Philosophy. 

E-mail: pavlosodom@gmail.com

 

NATURALISM AND CONVENTIONALISM IN PLATO’S DIALOGUES AND NATIVISTIC THEORIES OF LANGUAGE

 

ABSTRACT

For Plato, language was the way to cognize the universe. The philosophy of language, which was primarily initiated by Plato in the Cratylus, still has not received answers to the questions settled by this great Greek thinker. In fact, it just offered various solutions formed in different conceptions and approaches in the ancient, scholastic, modern and postmodern periods. The questions raised by Plato in his dialogue have been continued in various nativistic theories of language, especially in works of Noam Chomsky. Language—as it is seen by Plato, i.e., as uniting our inner world with the outer world, is a significant feature of humankind, is still underinvestigated. 

Keywords: language, conventionalism, naturalism, interpretation, etymology, semiotics.

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mczarnocka@ifispan.edu.pl

 

EDMUND HUSSERL'S IDEA OF SCIENCE AND THE PROJECT OF PHENOMENOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

I investigate the idea of science elaborated by Edmund Husserl in his later works, first of all, in Cartesian Meditations and the Crisis of European Sciences. The first part of this investigation has been published in the paper: Edmunda Husserla idea nauki i projekt fenomenologii jako nauki ścisłej [Edmund Husserl’s Idea of Science and the Project of Phenomenology as a Strict Science], Filozofia i nauka. Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne, 2019, 7 (2), pp. 247-264. Husserl claims that the transformation of philosophy into a strict science, which is the basic aim of his intel­lectual enterprise, is connected with a reform of all the positive sciences. Positive science is closely related to philosophy—both they have a common grounding and ideal. The paper also compares Husserl's project of philosophy as a fundamental science with the today trends in philosophy and the plurality of its schools, attitudes, fields of problems and methods.

Keywords: Edmund Husserl, ideal of science, phenomenology, positive science.

 

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Paweł Dziedziul

University of Bialystok, ul. Świerkowa 20 B, 15-328 Białystok, Poland.

E-mail: paweldziedziul@gmail.com

 

STEVEN PINKER’S MELIORISM 

 

ABSTRACT

This article considers Steven Pinker’s recent outlook presented in his book Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism and Progress. The paper discusses not only current political and philosophical Pinker’s views on a considerable number of evidences in favor of mankind’s progress in the last period. The authors claims that Pinker’s views may serve as an antidote to the contemporary pessimism that is being spread inter alia by mass media. The reader is pulled into a debate regarding issues surrounding the contemporary state of being of the human race. This is something more than just pop-scientific excursion of a well-established specialist beyond his area of expertise, but a valuable aggregate of data enticing also to professionals from the realm of sociology, philosophy and politics. Above all Pinker’s voice should be regarded as a counterbalance to all-pervasive pejorism and however momentary relief.

Keywords: meliorism, pejorism, optimism, progressivism.

 

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Barbara Trybulec

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: barbara.trybulec1@gmail.com

 

THE SUBJECT OR AGENT? UNDERSTANDING SUBJECTIVITY IN THE COGNITIVE ARTEFACTS ERA

 

ABSTRACT

The philosophical tradition defines the subject as a reflective being, in principle aware of its agency which makes it capable of making free decisions and taking responsibility for them. Agency, understood in this way, is clearly attributed only to people. However, the technological development of artificial cognitive enhancements and of increasingly autonomous artificial intelligence, that has been taken place in last few decades, casts doubts whether such an approach is not too anthropocentric. This doubt is indicated by some proponents of extending cognitive processes beyond the human brain; they argue for the need of appropriate extension of the subject as well. Moreover, there is an increasing number of proposals attributing agency to artifacts. In the first part of the article, I refer to the two most commonly used philosophical criteria distinguishing the subject of cognition from all information processing systems: being a reflective system, and being the subject of intentional stance. Next, I assess, from such a perspective, the attempts to attribute agency to both one-person extended cognitive systems and artificial systems, such as relatively autonomous computer programs. I argue that the gap between conceptions of the extended subject and the artificial subject, and the standard approach incline toward the usage of the term “agent” designating this phenomenon. The term is already widely used in cognitive science to designate any relatively autonomous information processing system performing a cognitive task. The need of the clear distinction between “the subject” (“subjectivity”) and “the agent” (“agency”) is especially noticeable in Polish, where the difference in meanings of these concepts is not so evident as in English. The awareness of the applying in cognitive science these two different notions of agency prevents against a conceptual misuse which could lead to erroneous explanations and predictions.

Keywords: subject, agent, agency, extended mind thesis, extended cognitive system, cognitive enhancement, artificial cognitive system.

 

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Magdalena Łata, Andrzej Łukasik

Magdalena Łata – University of Warsaw, ul. Nowy Świat 69, 00-001 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: magdalena.lata@onet.eu

Andrzej Łukasik – Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: lukasik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

IS TRUTH ALWAYS BEAUTIFUL, THAT IS, HOW AESTHETIC VALUES CAN BECOME AN EPISTEMOLOGICAL OBSTACLE

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents the main functions of aesthetic values (beauty, simplicity, symmetry) in the process of formulating, evaluating and accepting scientific theories in the work of physicist: 1) they motivate to undertake scientific research; (2) have a heuristic role which enables the direction of the search for a new theory to be selected; (3) are a criterion for choosing between empirically equivalent theories in the absence of empirical evidences and (4) sometimes constitute an epistemological obstacle. The basic thesis of the work is that aesthetic values, in addition to positive functions, also play a negative role in science, hindering the acceptance of new theories or leading to inefficient research. Too much weight on the aesthetic side of theory can pose a threat to the objectivity of scientific cognition.

Keywords: beauty, symmetry, simplicity, true, epistemological obstacle, nonempirical criteria.

 

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Zdzisława Piątek

Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: zdzislawa.piatek33@gmail.com

 

ABOUT THE NATURE OF HUNTING – THE PRESENT, THE PAST, AND THE FUTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses three stages in the development of hunting. Initially hunting had an adaptive value and contributed to the process of evolution of humanoids. When animals were domesticated hunting rituals still constituted an important element of cultural identity and were subject to various transformations due to the pressure from the state and the church. In the contemporary world, under the influence of ecology we witness the emergence of a new ethics which changes man's relationship to animals. Hunting cannot be reconciled with the morality of modern hu­manity. Some people demand a complete ban on hunting or that only bloodless tradition should be continued.

Keywords: hunting, evolution of humanoids, morality, modern humanity, ecology.

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorążych 2, Poland.

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com

 

ON THE NATURAL-SOCIAL HARMFULNESS OF HUNTING PRACTICES

 

ABSTRACT

The current model of hunting economy, focused mainly on killing innumerable number of game species and finding joy and benefit in it, does not totally fulfil crite­ria of sustainable, ethical and rational management. This work provides an overview of evidences that the moral evil of hunting, together with the whole hunting culture, are not rationally justifiable. I am going to validate there is no reasonable argument for maintaining hunting economy and culture in the on-going, archaic condition. I maintain that therefore an immediate system reform of our hunting economy is necessary. There is a broad list of objection to the different aspects of hunting practices, which are presented and discussed in short in the paper. A reformed hunting institution, endowed with veterinary service, should guard some animals' interests by different strategies of assuaging some conflicts among people and animals, as catching alive, flushing, separating or biosafety and professional reprocessing of infected corpses. The main recommendation for the ossified hunting tradition is the appeal for listening to the opinion of experts in natural sciences.

Keywords: hunting, hunting ethics, hunting culture, hunting practices, biosafety.

 

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Emanuele Coco

University of Catania, Italy; LAIOS-IIAC, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences. 

E-mail: emanuele.coco@unict.it

 

THE PHILOSOPHER AHEAD OF HIS TIME.

LUDWIK FLECK AND THE COMPLEXITY OF SCIENCE

(COMMUNICATION AND NOTES)

 

ABSTRACT

The new edition in Italian of the articles by the Polish microbiologist and philosopher Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) edited by Francesco Coniglione offers the opportunity for some considerations around this significant scholar. Fleck anticipates Kuhn's ideas as well as those of the sociology of science. For him, any epistemology that does not take psychological and sociological methods into account, or that does not concern itself with economics, technology, art, and even politics, is an epistemology imaginabilis. Here we discuss some key points of the essays collected in the book, some observations taken from the rich introduction of the editor, and an inevitable question: Why has Fleck been neglected for so long?

Keywords: Philosophy of science, sociology of science, Thomas Kuhn, Ludwik Fleck, thought collective, thought style.

 

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Zbysław Muszyński

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: zmuszyn@gmail.com

 

LEON KOJ'S SEMIOTIC CONDITION FOR MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING

 

ABSTRACT

Major works by Leon Koj deal with the issues of semiotics, logics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and ethics. Many of them refer to aspects of communication, however, this is not the main subject of his considerations. These references relate to the problems of satisfying: 1. the logical criteria, 2. the methodological criteria, 3. the ethical criteria, 4. the semiotic criteria. This article is dedicated to defining the semiotic criteria. It briefly covers basic semiotic notions present in Koj's works. On the basis of Koj's assumptions the concept of semiotics conditions for the realisation and functions of the communication process is defined.

Keywords: Leon Koj, communication, understanding, beliefs, rationality, criticism.

 

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Józef Dębowski 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Kurta Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn, Poland.

E-mail: jozdeb@poczta.onet.pl

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY OF THE SIGN. LEON KOJ’S POINT OF VIEW

 

ABSTRACT

The article consists of two parts. In the first one (introductory) I recall—following Edmund Husserl, Stanisław Ossowski and Adam Schaff—the main formulations of the “principle of transparency of the sign.” In these formulations it is usually said about (1) the transparency of the sign regarding objects denoted by the sign (denoted, designated and/or named), or (2) the transparency of the sign regarding its meaning (respectively, events, states of affairs and facts designated by the sign). However, as Husserl pointed out, one can also speak about (3) the transparency of the sign in relations to the activities and mental states of the sign’s users (senders and recipients). After all, only due to the transparency of the sign understood in this way, it is possible for people to communicate with each other, thus the sign can also has an expressive and communicative function. In turn, the second part of the article (essential) contains a reconstruction of the Leon Koj’s approach; Koj gave a consistently formalized form to the theory of sign based on the principle of transparency—the form of an axiomatized logical system (using Quine's formalism from his Mathematical Logic). One of Koj's main goals was also to indicate the close relationship between semantics and pragmatics, and even the primacy of pragmatics over semantics. Formal-logical tools have also shown that the theory of sign based on the principle of transparency neither contravene The Law of Non-Contradiction (at least in its psychological formulation), nor contain or imply semantic antinomies such us antinomy of the liar. Because it is a theory easily negotiable with Alfred Tarski’s theory of language levels.

Keywords: logic, axiomatized logical system, semiotic, semantic, pragmatic, sign, meaning, denoted, designated, intentionality, the transparency of the sign, the principle of transparency, expressive function of the sign, communicative function of the sign, semantic antinomies. 

 

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Paweł Bytniewski

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: bytniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

ALINA MOTYCKA — PHILOSOPHER OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

In the paper, I present the views of Alina Motycka, a Polish philosopher of science who died in 2018. I place Motycka’s scholar activity in a historical context, relative to two traditions of the philosophy of science—its historical version signed by Thomas Kuhn, and the tradition of logical reconstruction of science which in the second half of the twentieth century was revived by the thought of Karl Popper. I believe that this historical situation forms the context in which Motycka shaped her view of the philosophy of science and, because of such a particular context, she has participated in it with her own problematizations. So, what constitutes the originality of her way? Two issues come to the fore here. The first is the reconstruction of the fundamental problem of the philosophy of science, which, according to Motycka, is the question of confronting two scientific theories, of which the earlier (T1) is replaced by a later and competitive one (T2). Motycka shows the inability of the epistemology of the second half of the 20th century to adequately capture this relationship. The reason for this is the lack of intellectual means to problematize the situation T1–T2. The second area of the author's interest is the issue of creativity in science. She was inspired by the theories of Carl G. Jung. In this context, it is of interest to use the philosophy of science of terms such as archetype and myth.

Keywords: Alina Motycka, philosophy of science, epistemology, C.G. Jung, archetypes, myth.

8/2020 (1)

Jacek Koronacki

Institute of Computer Science Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Jana Kazimierza 5, 01-248 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: jacek.koronacki@ipipan.waw.pl

 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE DISENCHANTED WORLD

 

ABSTRACT

This is a modest endeavour written from an engineering perspective by a nonphilosopher to set things straight if somewhat roughly: What does artificial intelligence boil down to? What are its merits and why some dangers may stem from its development in this time of confusion when, to quote Rémi Brague: “From the point of view of technology, man appears as outdated, or at least superfluous”?

Keywords: artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, machine learning, disenchanted world.

 

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Witold Marciszewski

International Center for Formal Ontology, affiliated at Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: witmar@calculemus.org

 

THE COMPUTATIONAL AND PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO THE DYNAMICS OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

Science means here mathematics and those empirical disciplines which avail themselves of mathematical models. The pragmatic approach is conceived in Karl R. Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery (p. 276) sense: a logical appraisal of the success of a theory amounts to the appraisal of its corroboration. This kind of appraisal is exemplified in section 6 by a case study—on how Isaac Newton justified his theory of gravitation. The computational approach in problem-solving processes consists in considering them in terms of computability: either as being performed according to a model of computation in a narrower sense, e.g., the Turing machine, or in a wider perspective—of machines associated with a non-mechanical device called “oracle” by Alan Turing (1939). Oracle can be interpreted as computertheoretic representation of intuition or invention. Computational approach in another sense means considering problem-solving processes in terms of logical gates, supposed to be a physical basis for solving problems with a reasoning. Pragmatic rationalism about science, seen at the background of classical rationalism (Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz etc.), claims that any scientific idea, either in empirical theories or in mathematics, should be checked through applications to problem-solving processes. Both the versions claim the existence of abstract objects, available to intellectual intuition. The difference concerns the dynamics of science: (i) the classical rationalism regards science as a stationary system that does not need improvements after having reached an optimal state, while (ii) the pragmatical version conceives science as evolving dynamically due to fertile interactions between creative intuitions, or inventions, with mechanical procedures. The dynamics of science is featured with various models, like Derek J. de Solla Price’s exponential and Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm model (the most familiar instances). This essay suggests considering Turing’s idea of oracle as a complementary model to explain most adequately, in terms of exceptional inventiveness, the dynamics of mathematics and mathematizable empirical sciences.

Keywords: algorithm, behavioral (vs declarative) knowledge, computability, corroboration, innate knowledge, intuition, invention, logic gates, oracle, pragmatic (vs classical) rationalism, problem-solving, reasoning, symbolic logic, Turing machine.

 

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Kazimierz Trzęsicki

University of Bialystok, ul. Świerkowa 20B, 15-328 Białystok, Poland.

E-mail: kasimir4701@gmail.com

 

THE IDEA OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence, both as a hope of making a substantial progress, and a fear of the unknown and unimaginable, has its roots in human dreams. These dreams were materialized by means of rational intellectual efforts. We see beginnings of such a process in Lullus’s fancies. Many scholars and enthusiasts participated in the development of Lullus’s art, ars combinatoria. Amongst them, Athanasius Kircher was distinguished. Gottfried Leibniz ended the period in which the idea of artificial intelligence had been shaped, and started a new one when artificial intelligence could be considered a part of science, according to today’s standards.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, ars combinatoria, Ramon Lullus, Athanasius Kircher, Gottfried Leibniz

 

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Andrzej Targowski, Henryk Krawczyk

Andrzej Targowski – Western Michigan University (1980–2017).

E-mail: andrew.targowski@wmich.edu

Henryk Krawczyk – Polska Akademia Nauk; Centrum Informatyczne Trójmiejskiej Akademickiej Sieci Komputerowej.

E-mail: hkrawk@pg.edu.pl

 

INOFORMATICS AS A FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE SUPPORTING HUMAN ENDEAVORS

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to answer the question of whether informatics is a field or just a discipline of knowledge. Analyzes of info-computer-based problems, consider that informatics in Poland should be treated as a field. It was emphasized that the English term computer science is only one of the informatics-oriented specializations. The word “informatics” can be associated much more often with terms; IT in the US and ICT in Europe except France, where l’informatique terminology is used). Which name to use since the narrow understanding of information processing and handling is losing its full potential for the right development. In practice, it means a reduction in undertaking ambitious tasks and the higher costs of its development. Social implications confirmed that, despite a lot of capable informaticians, Poland had not been seen (except for computer devices), the right development of informatics-oriented applications. Hence the essential general informaticsoriented strategy is offered because the digital equipment-oriented strategy alone is not enough to apply in success looking ICT applications.

Keywords: informatics, computer science, ICT, informatic strategy, social implications of informatics.

 

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Mariusz Mazurek

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mmazurek@ifispan.waw.pl

 

ON VIRTUAL OBJECTS

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents a brief exposition of alternative ways of creating virtual objects and the status of their existence inspired by the relevant views of Plato, Aristotle, Franz Brentano and Karl Popper as well as various conceptions of representation. I argue that the present state of research on the problem of “computer” virtuality shows that it is necessary to explore first the ontological issues of virtual objects. Only these issues will solve the mystery of the creation and existence of virtual objects. The consideration of these issues are suppressed by the fact that contemporary philosophy has removed both metaphysics and, with-it, ontology. That is why, and for reasons for reasons of substantive accuracy, I show how traditional ontological and ontologically inspiring approaches are—when modified— promising candidates for exploring the nature of virtual objects, first of all, problems of their existence and creation.

Keywords: virtuality, virtual object, virtual reality, representation in computer sciences.

 

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Andrzej Kiepas

Institute of Education and Communication Research, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Hutnicza 9, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

E-mail: andrzej.kiepas@us.edu.pl

 

THE HUMAN BEING IN THE WORLD OF DIGITALIZING PROCESSES – PRESENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE EFFECTS

 

ABSTRACT

The article focuses on selected problems which have now appeared and fall under the ideas “industry 4.0” and “society 5.0”, namely on anthropological issues. Changes in the relationships between man and technology based on trust lead to an increase of the role of the technological factor in these relations. Other aspects of the analyzed changes concern the new requirements of the responsibility and changes of human subjectivity and rationality. The future of man appears to be an area of uncertainty related to inter alia the conditions of functioning and living in the order of the post-digital world.

Keywords: industry 4.0, society 5.0, subjectivity, post-digital world.

 

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Beata Witkowska-Maksimczuk

Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: bwitkows@ans.pw.edu.pl

 

DIGITAL COMMUNISM

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents the phenomenon of increasing sharing in-formations for free on the Internet and the contemporary development of gift economy in the form of a movement most often called cybercommunism. The article points out two basic attitudes in treating information. According to the first one, information should be treated as a commodity to which property rights can be attributed and which is subject to market play. This involves such issues as copyright, fees, licenses and other ways of protecting the interests of market players. The second attitude is to treat valuable information as a common good, often with a moral imperative to share it (to varying degrees Open Source and Open Acces, the idea of copyleft, DIY, P2P network, YouTube, The Pirate Bay domain etc.). Since every concept or movement proclaiming a community of goods is called communism (in a broader sense of the word, in a narrower sense it is a specific political system, e.g. the Soviet Union), today we are dealing with digital communism on the Internet. Some researchers (Firer-Blaess, Fuchs) point to Wikipedia as an example. The Internet encyclopedia operates on the basis of principles that go beyond the capitalist way of production and represent an informational-communist way of production: in the subjective dimension, it is a cooperative work and in the objective dimension, a shared ownership of the means of production. The text also presents the division of ethics into an abstract and concrete one, applied to the behaviour of network users. If someone within the framework of an abstract ethics preaches the principle of “You will not pirate.” (copying and distributing illegally) is a corresponding principle of specific ethics that says “You will not pirate unless O1 or O2…or he.” In practice, concrete ethics push many Internet users to treat Internet resources as a common good, from which everyone can draw according to their own needs. Digital communism can be treated, on the one hand, as a partially implemented idea and, on the other, as a postulate. From an axiological point of view, this postulate would be connected with the Internet implementation of equality (access to resources for everyone) and freedom (access to all information).

Keywords: digital communism, cybercommunism, information ownership, concrete ethics, abstract ethics, community of goods.

 

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Jacek Gurczyński

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: jacek.gurczynski@umcs.lublin.pl

 

ON VALUES IN THE DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT. CYPHER’S CHOICE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper tries to defend the thesis that it is impossible to decide upon moral issues without any references to the ontology of the world we live in. An illustrative example of the main argumentation line is the choice made by Cypher—a second plan character in the movie Matrix. Cypher decides to betray human rebels fighting against machines for freedom and, as a reward, accepts affluent life in the virtual reality. His choice seems to be superficially reprehensible because of the abandonment of the real world and authentic life. However, one can argue that the dichotomy between the real and virtual world is seeming. By choosing the virtual reality Cypher decided to act in a world which, like the real world, makes it possible to be a moral subject and enables authentic experience. The difference between both the worlds lies in the type of determination limiting any conscious subject. Cypher prefers to live in a world determined by the algorithm of Matrix more than in a world where his behaviour is determined by genes and other biological factors.

Keywords: free will, biological determinism, relativism, semantic anti-realism, ontology of the virtual reality, values in the virtual reality.

 

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Paweł Polak

Faculty of Philosophy of the Pontifical University of John Paul II in Crocow, ul. Kanonicza 9, 31-002 Crocow, Poland.

E-mail: pawel.polak@upjp2.edu.pl

 

COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING IN PHILOSOPHY – SOME METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS

 

ABSTRACT

Computational modeling plays an important role in the methodology of contemporary science. The epistemological role of modeling and simulations leads to questions about a possible use of this method in philosophy. Attempts to use some mathematical tools to formulate philosophical concepts trace back to Spinoza and Newton. Newtonian natural philosophy became an example of successful use of mathematical thinking to describe the fundamental level of nature. Newton’s approach has initiated a new scientific field of research in physics and at the same time his system has become a source of new philosophical considerations about physical reality. According to Michael Heller, some physical theories may be treated as the formalizations of philosophical conceptions. Computational modeling may be an extension of this idea; this is what I would like to present in the article. I also consider computational modeling in philosophy as a source of new philosophical metaphors; this idea has been proposed in David J. Bolter’s conception of defining technology. The consideration leads to the following conclusion: In the methodology of philosophy significant changes have been taking place; the new approach do not make traditional methods obsolete, it is rather a new analytical tools for philosophy and a source of inspiring metaphors.

Keywords: Computational modeling, methodology of philosophy, defining technology.

 

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Paweł Stacewicz

Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: p.stacewicz@ans.pw.edu.pl

 

ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR PHILOSOPHY ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN DIGITALITY AND ANALOGICITY

 

ABSTRACT

In this paper we show how formal computer science concepts—such as encoding, algorithm or computability—can be interpreted philosophically, including ontologically and epistemologically. Such interpretations lead to questions and problems, the working solutions of which constitute some form of pre-philosophical worldview. In this work we focus on questions inspired by the IT distinction between digitality and analogicity, which has its mathematical origin in the mathematical distinction between discreteness and continuity. These include the following questions: 1) Is the deep structure of physical reality digital or analog, 2) does the hu man mind resemble a more digital or analog computational system, 3) does the answer to the second question give us a cognitively fruitful insight into the cognitive limitations of the mind? As a particularly important basis for the above questions, we consider the fact that the computational power (i.e., the range of solvable problems) of some types of analog computations is greater than that of digital computations.

Keywords: information, digitality, analogicity, computing power, computational worldview.

 

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Sławomir Leciejewski

Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: slaaw@amu.edu.pl

 

THE BIG DATA PROBLEM IN EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

In the paper the phenomenon of big data is presented. I pay my special attention to the relation of this phenomenon to research work in experimental sciences. I search for answers to two questions. First, do the research methods proposed within the paradigm big data can be applied in experimental sciences? Second, does applying the research methods subject to the big data paradigm lead, in consequence, to a new understanding of science?

Keywords: big data, experimental sciences, philosophy of science, methodology of science.

7/2019 (2)

Leszek Kuźnicki  

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Pasteur Street 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: l.kuznicki@nencki.gov.pl  

 

WHETHER AND HOW TO DEFINE LIFE?

 

ABSTRACT

Biology is a science on life. This definition, concise and most commonly used, is satisfactory for almost everybody. It is otherwise when one asks: What is life? Then it appears that no one feature can be indicated which distinguishes “the living” from “the non-living.” The author presents the sources of these difficulties and then gives his own attempt to solve the problem of definition of live—which is based on the idea of levels of the biological organization. In author’s view, to characterise the objects of research in biology we should apply not one concept of life (or of living organism) but three concepts: of organized biological matter (for the molecular and sub-cellular levels), of living organism (for the level of the specimen), and of life (for the sphere of phenomena which occur on the population-species-biocenotic level).

Keywords: definition of life, living organism, organized biological matter.  

 

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Krzysztof Chodasewicz

 

LIFE, LIVING INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANISMS

 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an outline of the relationship between the categories of living individual, organism and life. I argue that although these categories are related with each other and often treated as the same, we should strive for their separation. The main argument for the distinction between the individual and life is of a methodological character: the definitions of life are mainly interested for astrobiologists and scientists working in the field of origin of life or artificial life, while the individual is important, among others, in standard evolutionary biology and ecology. Among the concepts of living individual various forms of evolutionary definition (individual as a unit of selection) currently dominate. The living individual understood in this way is not identical with a structurally limited and functionally integrated self-sustained entity, which is usually called “organism.” Moreover, the explanatory success of the evolutionary concept of individual, in my opinion, implies the adoption of some version of the evolutionary definition of life. In the last part of this paper I propose a process-evolutionary definition of life, which also indicates a relationship between the three aforementioned categories.

Keywords: living individual, the concept of organism, defining of life.  

 

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Adrianna Grabizna  

Institute of Psychology, The University of Zielona Góra, Al. Wojska Polskiego 69, 65-762 Zielona Góra, Poland.  

E-mail: a.grabizna@wpps.uz.zgora.pl    

 

„LIKE MOTHER, LIKE DAUGHTER — EVO-DEVO AND THE CONCEPT OF EXTENDED INHERITANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND OF THE TRANSGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF ATTACHMENT STYLE AND MENTALIZING CAPACITY”

 

ABSTRACT

Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) is becoming to be popular in psychology, and by certain is even seen as a new biology for psychology (Hofer 2014). In particular, it is about the concept of extended inheritance This concept claims to be (neo-) Lamarckian. According to it inherited is everything that contributes to resemblance across generations and that strongly affects the fitness of the offspring—starting by nuclear genes, by genes expression, maternal care, ecological niche, cultural niche, language, etc. In this paper I analyse the potential of the concept of extended inheritance on the example of transgenerational transmission of attachment style and mentalizing capacity. I present the neuroendocrine mechanism of transmission. Then I show that a) DNA methylation is complementary to neuroendocrine mechanism, but it does not revolutionize the latter as it is claimed; b) the concept of extended inheritance confounds the three questions rightly separated by Neo-Darwinism: origin of variation, fate of variation and inheritance, c) although the motivation of Evo-Devo goes against the alleged genetic determinism of neodarwinism, the concept of transgeneration inheritance is determinist (although it is an epigeneetic determinism).

Keywords: Evo-Devo, extended inheritance, attachment style, mentalizing, transgenerational inheritance.

 

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Ewa Joanna Godzińska  

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Pasteur Street 02-093 Warsaw, Poland. 

E-mail: egodzinska@nencki.gov.pl    

 

ETHOLOGY AND WHAT NEXT? SOME PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS INFLUENCING THE RESEARCH ON ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR

 

ABSTRACT

Animal behaviour and its underlying causal factors are investigated by numerous behavioural sciences. Ethology, one of the most important classical behavioural sciences, is concerned with the description and quantification of behaviour and the analysis of a wide spectre of its causal factors. Ethology also lays stress on the importance of comparative behavioural research and field research. Specific behaviour paterns were considered by classical ethology as elements of hierarchically organised behavioural systems focused on specific functions. The notion of instinct was, however, far from unequivocal and is no more frequently used in behavioural sciences. We also know that information flow between the levels of organization existing in the nervous system and in living systems in general is multidirectional. The assumption that processes running on higher levels of organization can and should be explained solely in terms of processes running on lower levels becomes thus largely groundless. In behavioural sciences reductionism can manifest itself also as the so called law of parsimony adopted during explanations of observed phenomena (Occam’s razor, Lloyd Morgan’s canon). Since the introduction of Karl Popper’s falisifiability criterion to the methodology of scientific research, reductionistic explanations of observed phenomena are, however, less frequently proposed in behavioural sciences. Instead, an approach currently used involves experimental testing of sets of hypotheses proposing alternative explanations of the observed phenomena, not necessarily the simplest ones. Classical ethology was the so called objectivist science of behaviour: its adherents did not deny the existence of subjective phenomena in animals, however, explanations of mechanisms of investigated phenomena in terms of underlying subjective processes were not considered to be sufficient. Presently we may put forward increasingly daring hypotheses concerning subjective experiences of animals thanks to the development of advanced techniques of neuroimaging such as the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioural sciences are constantly progressing and their methods become increasingly sophisticated. We can thus hope that philosophy and behavioural sciences will continue during a long time yet to contribute jointly to achieve new insights enriching our knowledge on factors influencing animal and human behaviour.

Keywords: ethology, behavioural sciences, instinct, information flow, reductionism, law of parsimony, falsifiability, subjective processes.  

 

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Józef Andrzej Stuchliński  

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: pelnomocnik@wszechnicapolska.home.pl    

 

ON FORMAL MODELS OF FACTORS AND MECHANISMS OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION

 

ABSTRACT

Two formal types of models of living processes, especially evolutionary ones, may be distinguished: the well-known mathematical type and the less-known logical one. The latter applies the terms “class” or “set”; both the terms are understood either in a collective sense (in mereology) or in a distributive sense (in set theory). These formal terms may be used among others to such organic multiplicities as populations or species of organisms, and to organic constituents (molecules, cells, organs) of living organism. Collective concepts refer to objects existing in nature, whereas distributive concepts refer to the linguistic and research constructions of models of natural objects, developed to cognitively grasp natural regularities.

Keywords: factors and mechanisms of evolution, mathematical model, logical model, classes and sets understood collectively, classes and sets understood distributively.  

 

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Andrzej Gecow  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: gecow@op.pl; andrzejgecow@gmail.com   

 

A CURRENT RETURN TO LAMARCK IN AGREEMENT WITH DARWIN

 

ABSTRACT

Currently, the “Lamarckian dimension” and “Lamarckian mechanisms” are vividly discussed, indicating that they are compatible with Darwinism. However, they require an extension of Modern Synthesis to Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Both the terms, unfortunately connected to Lamarck, really indicate a group of phenomena which can be symbolized by Jablonka’s wording: “some evolutionary changes are non-random in origin, or even result from instruction.” The Lamarckian mechanisms leading to these evolutionary changes arose, however, in the Darwinian way much earlier. This earlier stage is said too rarely, and the typical understanding of Lamarckism strongly suggests its lack. The term “Lamarckism” was and is understood very differently both at different times and in different national and ideological traditions but usually fraught with a simplified understanding of Lamarck. Most of the controversies in these issues arise from the insufficient precision of the utterance, and this from undervaluation of definition, specification of assumptions and abstract reasoning.

Keywords: Lamarkism, Lamarkian mechanisms, heredity, Extendent Evolutionary Synthesis.

 

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Krzysztof Chodasewicz 

 

LIFE AND MIND. TWO SIDES OF THHE SAME?

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to discuss possible connections between the categories of mind and life. Some authors argue that life and mind are closely connected or even are two sides of the same phenomenon. I analyze and examine this thesis in the light of different approaches to defining life: the metabolic approach (which stresses the importance of self-maintenance and self-making) and the evolutionary approach (which focuses on evolution by natural selection). The first way of defining life is Maturana and Varela' conception of autopoiesis, the second is Korzeniewski's cybernetic definition of life and van Hateren's modified Darwinian definition of life. Especially interesting is the possibility of connecting mind and life in the evolutionary framework. The text does not provide exact results, but rather it proposes possible modes of thinking of the relation of these two categories.

Keywords: definition of life, relations between life and mind, life and cognition, autopoiesis, cybernetic definition of life, Darwinian definition of life. 

 

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Aleksander A. Ziemny  

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: aleksander.ziemny@amu.edu.pl    

 

ISSUES WITH GENE CONCEPT

 

ABSTRACT

This article provides an initial analysis, from a historical standpoint, of the problematic nature of conceptualizations of the notion of gene in molecular genetics. The starting point is an historical outline of the relation between classical genetics and molecular genetics; it is indicated how the conceptual baggage of classical genetics influenced the development of the concepts of gene used later in molecular biology. I also reveal two problems of genes in the philosophy of science, i.e., skepticism concerning genes and the concept of nominal gene. I conclude that concept of gene functioning within the framework of molecular genetics should be considered from the point of view of experimentalism and pragmatism. It seems that the concept of gene on the molecular level should be conceptualized—in order to remain functional—as broadly as possible and in relation to genetic material.

Keywords: philosophy of biology, genetics, new experimentalism. 

 

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Iwona Olejniczak  

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: iw.olejniczak@gmail.com   

 

INTENTIONAL APES BEHAVIOR

 

ABSTRACT

The main topic of this article is apes’ intentional behaviour. I consider the Michael Tomasello’s concept of intentionality. I outline how different levels of intentionality presented by Tomasello could be applied to apes’ behaviour. To do so I examine few experiments and observations (in natural conditions) of apes’ behaviour and try to apply Tomasello’s intentionality concepts. My main concern is the possibility of group and shared intentionality in ape communities, which could suggest that there is some kind of culture oriented behaviour in non-human animals.

Keywords: intentionality, individual intentionality, joint intentionality, collective intentionality, ape, chimpanzees, natural environment. 

 

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Leszek Żuk  

Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3/20, 51-149 Wrocław, Poland.  

E-mail: leszuk@vp.pl    

 

THE DIRECTNESS IN PROCESSES OF EVOLUTION

 

ABSTRACT

One of the fundamental problems in evolutionary sciences is the direction of evolution at different levels of matter organization. According to traditional teleological interpretations, the evolving systems should develop toward a final state—a goal. However, in most cases such a goal is not determinable—scientists do not know it. However, they can reveal a general tendency or a series of changes in time: a teleonomy or a directness based mainly upon an internal pattern of the evolving system although modified also by external influences. Teleonomical processes are responsible for all evolutionary processes including transitions from one level of organization to another.

Keywords: evolution, directness, goal directness, teleonomy, levels of matter organization. 

 

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Dariusz A. Szkutnik  

currently an independent researcher.   

 

SEARCHING FOR DYNAMICAL ORGANIC DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES. METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS

 

ABSTRACT

Author’s aim is to highlight problems related to the course of regulatory processes in the structures of the living organism. In this research area the question arises what is the task of causal factors and mechanisms governing regeneration processes, including building new parts of the body. Despite the vast knowledge already gained in this field, the way to restore the functional regeneration of some structures of the organism is still to be discovered.

Keywords: regeneration, development, cause, factors.

 

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Alicja Kubica  

Pedagogical University of Krakow, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Cracow, Poland.  

E-mail: alicewanderer@gmail.com     

 

TYTAN VERSUS ENCELADUS — ON THE MULTITUDE OF THEORIES OF BIOGENESIS AND ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL AWARENESS OF SCIENTISTS

 

ABSTRACT

The text was created on the basis of interviews with Caltech scholars (Pasadena, USA) in 2018. The talks concerned various contemporary theories of biogenesis and the role of their philosophical premises. The researchers also addressed the issue of popularizing science. The worldview is shaped (and established) by popularizing publications. They also answered the questions how their personal beliefs influenced on research.

Keywords: theoretical synthesis, biogenesis, popular science.  

 

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Włodzimierz Ługowski  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: wlugowsk@fispan.waw.pl    

 

LIFE AS A NATURAL PROPERTY OF MATTER

 

ABSTRACT

This work is a contribution to understanding the philosophical dimension of the breakthrough that took place in the 20th century historical natural science as a result of the extrapolation of Darwin’s idea of evolution to the area of inanimate matter and the formulation on this basis of a number of theories of pre-biological chemical evolution. The revealed results are the inaccurate recognition of the philosophical foundations of the broadly understood science of evolution: on the one hand, for scientists-naturalists, and on the other, in a much broader, social dimension of their research.

Keywords: nature of life, pre-biological chemical evolution, biogenesis, Weltanschauung.  

 

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Stanisław Czerniak  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl     

 

RICHARD MÜNCH’S THEORY OF ACADEMIC CAPITALISM. AN ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION AND A PHILOSOPHICAL COMMENTARY

 

ABSTRACT

The author reviews the main elements of Richard Münch’s academic capitalism theory. By introducing categories like “audit university” or “entrepreneurial university,” the German sociologist critically sets the present academic management model against the earlier, modern-era conception of academic research as an “exchange of gifts.” In the sociological and psychological sense, the latter is a social communication structure rooted in traditional social lore, for instance the potlatch ceremonies celebrated by some North-American Indian tribes which Marcel Mauss described. Münch shows the similarities between that old “gift exchanging” model and the contemporary one with its focus on the psychosocial fundamentals of scientific praxis, and from this gradually derives the academic capitalism conception. His conclusion is the critical claim that science possesses its own, inalienable axiological autonomy and anthropological dimension, which degenerate in result of capitalism’s “colonisation” of science by means of state authority and money (here Münch refers to Jürgen Habermas’s philosophical argumentation). The author also offers many of his own reflections on the problem, which allows Münch’s analyses to be viewed in a somewhat broader context.

Keywords: academic capitalism, audit university, entrepreneurial university, potlach, gift exchanging, prestige, identity of the subject, anthropology of science.  

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

IDEA OF SCIENCE AND THE PROJECT OF PHENOMENOLOGY AS EXACT SCIENCE—EDMUND HUSSERL

 

ABSTRACT

I investigate Husserl’s long-term research on revealing/constructing a proper idea of science. For Husserl this idea was of tremendous importance: it had to be the basis of forming a (the) proper philosophy (phenomenology), that is, a philosophy which was to be an exact science, a new and higher form of science. According to Husserl, the idea of science is not a free project of individual researchers, scientific communities, but the very essence of science—changeless, universal, nontransformable, non-culturally and socially loaded, ahistorical, and non-relativized to scientific praxis. It was attempt to determine a new status of philosophy which led Husserl’s to the consideration of a universal idea of science.

Keywords: idea of science, Edmund Husserl, positive sciences, philosophy as an exact science, phenomenology.  

 

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Tomáš Čanal

Department of Philosophy and Applied Philosophy, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Námestie J. Herdu 2, 917 01 Trnava, Slovakia.

E-mail: tomas.cana73@gmail.com  

 

KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE AND A RADICAL SCEPTICISM

 

ABSTRACT

According to Descartes, it is possible to doubt successfully that there is external world, all around us, yet still to have language, in place, without any complication. According to Wittgenstein, to doubt everything about the external world except language means nothing more than to doubt everything about the external world including language. Why? No speaker is more certain about the meaning of his words than about the external things he believes to be unassailable (for example, that he has two hands and two legs). Without this constitutive connection there would be no communication of a definite sense. Wittgenstein suggests that, after the author of the Meditations on First Philosophy adopts the hypothesis of evil deceiver, we are only under the impression that we deal with language (or that we read a text). We instead deal with symptoms of something rather different. The objective of this paper is to critically reassess Wittgenstein’s criticism of the possibility of holding such a radical sceptical position.

Keywords: Cartesian doubt, certainty, Descartes, epistemology, Evil Deceiver, knowledge, scepticism, Wittgenstein.

 

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Jadwiga Skrzypek-Faluszczak

Faculty of Sociology and History Institute of Sociology, University of Rzeszów, Aleja Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.

E-mail: jadwiga_f@interia.pl  

 

SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION. IRRATIONALITY OF RATIONALITY AS A SUBSTRATE

 

ABSTRACT

This work attempts to reconstruct the culture that contributed to the philosophical way of thinking. My goal is to extract two important factors: religion carrying individual experience and the importance of certain ideas which are present in that culture. Sources of philosophical thinking can be found in the structure of polis. Only on its basis could the idea of the wise man and citizen as well as religion-oriented individual experience be raised. Greek polis paves the way for a new style of thinking by creating the conditions for its citizens to follow the ideal, regardless of the position they occupy in society. Sustainability, which should be a feature of a good citizen, is also the essence of society. Highly positioned wisdom as moral reflection tinged with religiosity allows thinking according to the laws of logos. Finally, the experience offered by the mystery cults leads to the transformation of their own existence and the emergence of a way of recognition of reality different than before. Undeniably, all the elements related to structure policies with its ideals contribute to the emergence of a new way of thinking in the form of philosophy. One could say that the philosophical objectivity is preceded by the subjectivity and rationality of its roots dating back to irrationality.

Keywords: irrationalism, divinity, structure polis, philosophy, religious experience.

 

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Marzenna Cyzman  

Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 3, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

E-mail: mcyzman@umk.pl  

 

SURPRISING PEREGRINATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF CONCEPTS. ON THE THOUGHT COLLECTIVE OF LUDWIK FLECK AND THE INTERPRETIVE COMMUNITY OF STANLEY FISH

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is to compare the thought collective and the interpretive community, two surprisingly similar notions formulated independently by Ludwik Fleck and Stanley Fish. In contemporary discourse, both concepts are used as synonims, while an accurate analysis of the contexts of the use of interesting terms proves that the equivalent of the interpretive community is rather thought collective, as well as the thought style, both of these concepts in the deliberations of Fish are subject to contamination. The exact repartition of the notion of interpretive community seems to be important due to the frequency of its use in works in the field of literary interpretation and cognition. The article also presents more general remarks on the functioning and possible origin of twin terms and their role in scientific cognition.

Keywords: thought collective, thought style, interpretive community, sociology of knowledge, interpretation.  

7/2019 (1)

Göran Sonesson

Division of Cognitive Semiotics, Lund University, Helgonabacken 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
E-mail: goran.sonesson@semiotik.lu.se

 

SEMIOSIS IN HISTORY. THE EMERGENCE OF ALTER-CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

Following upon Merlin Donald’s claim that human specificity emerges in history, and not exclusively in evolutionary time, it will be suggested that the diversified means of producing semiosis created by human beings account for the spread of empathy and altruism not only beyond the kin group, but to humankind in general. This amounts to treating other cultures as different from us, but still able to enter into communication with us (as an Alter), as opposed to treating these cultures as being part of nature, and thus only susceptible to being communicated about (as an Alius). Starting out from the theory of bio-cultural evolution defended by Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd, as well as from the multi-level selection theory of Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson, we try to lay bare the way in which semiotic structures play a role for transforming cultural evolution, contrary to biological evolution, into human history. We inquiry into what makes the existence of Alter-culture possible, if, as Sober and Wilson have claimed, armed with game theory, an altruistic society (an Ego-culture in our terms), is only possible in opposition to another group in relation to which group egoism rules (that is, in our terms, an Alius-culture). We will follow Michael Tomasello in arguing for the primacy of games of cooperation, rather than competition, while adding an historical dimension, which serves to explain how such cooperation can be extended beyond the primary group (our Ego-culture). However, we will insist on the importance of multiple semiotic resources for the boot-strapping of empathy and altruism, as well as on the genesis of this process in cultural encounters, as reflected in the spirit of the Enlightenment.

Keywords: Cognition, semiotics, empathy, altruism, bio-cultural coevolution.

 

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Shekoufeh Mohammadi Shirmahaleh

Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Maestro Mario de la Cueva S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacan, CDMX, Mexico.

E-mail: smohammadi@comunidad.unam.mx  

 

PEIRCEAN METAPHOR REEXAMINED: CREATION, FUNCTION AND INTERPRETATION

 

ABSTRACT

The Peircean iconic metaphor takes the concept of metaphor beyond linguistic and literary metaphors and does not even limit it to the “conventional metaphor” of Lakoff and Johnson’s cognitive theory. Given Peirce’s short and somewhat ambiguous definition of the metaphorical icon, a closer study of this category of icons is necessary for a better understanding of a concept that surpasses in many respects the earlier definitions of metaphor. It is also necessary to observe metaphors from the perspective of their creator: a perspective that is not usually adopted in other theories of metaphor, since much of the debates consider only the structure of the metaphor and its function with a focus on its interpretation, and do not discuss how the creator of the metaphor reaches or creates a metaphor. The present article aims at filling the mentioned blanks.

Keywords: Charles Sanders Peirce, iconic metaphor, final interpretation, iconicity.  

 

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Donna West

Modern Languages Department, State University of New York at Cortland, USA Old Main Building, Room 227-B NY 13045, Cortland, USA.

E-mail: westsimon@twcny.rr.com  

 

SEMIOTIC DETERMINANTS IN EPISODE-BUILDING: BEYOND AUTONOETIC CONSCIOUSNESS

 

ABSTRACT

This account examines how episodes are constructed and measured, and how Peirce’s Index informs and even hastens the advancement of this process—from binding spatial features, to the awareness of participant roles and temporal sequencing. It provides semiotic rationale for how episodes develop from static single pictures (dependent on verbatim memory) to events whose frames reflect a deictic and sequential character—superseding the consciousness inherent in autonoesis. Empirical evidence will trace children’s event memory—first iconic and static, and later characteristic of increasingly more complex interpretants which specify directional and logical relations, and memory sources. The signs which promote episodic thought are indexical in nature, given their largely relational character. They incorporate deictic projections of the self in diverse orientations, entering into different participant slots inherent to the event. Notice of the latter entails the influence of index to apprehend the spatial, participatory, and temporal directionality within and across event frames. This progression requires a rudimentary consciousness of aspectual features (telicity, dynamicity), as well as an appreciation for the events’ purposes/goals. Anticipating how, where, and when events conclude is critical to realizing the event’s purpose/goal, since, according to Bauer 2006: 384, it constitutes the basis upon which episodes are constructed.

Keywords: Episode-building, episodic memory, indexical signs, autonoetic consciousness.  

 

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Jens Allwood, Elisabeth Ahlsén Jens Allwood

SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Forskningsgången 6, Hus Patricia, Lindholmen, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.

E-mail: jens.allwood@ait.gu.se

E-mail: elisabeth.ahlsen@gu.se  

 

DIMENSIONS OF CONTEXT. CLASSIFYING APPROACHES TO THE CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION

 

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the concept of context with a special focus on the context of communication. We suggest two ways of classifying approaches to the context of communication: (i) classifying approaches based on a number of relevant dimensions for analyzing context in social activities, (ii) classifying approaches, based on the dimensions of Peirce’s semiotics. We also discuss the use of collected corpora of language, especially multimodal corpora of spoken interaction, as an aid in studying context. Finally, building on the two ways of classifying approaches to the context of communication, we present our own proposal for how to analyze the main relevant contextual dimensions influencing human interaction and communication

Keywords: Context, approaches to context, dimensions of context, syntactic context, semantic context, pragmatic context, semiotics, representamen, object, interpretant, relevant contexts. 

 

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Paul A. Wilson, Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk

Paul A. Wilson — University of Łódz Institute of English Studies Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics, Pomorska 171/173, 90-236 Łódź, Poland.

E-mail: paul.wilson@uni.lodz.pl

Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk — State University of Applied Sciences in Konin, Department of Research in Language, Literature, and Translation, Przyjaźni 1, 62-510 Konin.

E-mail: blt@konin.edu.pl  

 

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE AND CONCEPTUAL CLUSTERS OF EMOTION TERMS

 

ABSTRACT

The major underlying principle of the present paper is that, in opposition to the viewpoint of emotions as discrete entities, emotions are represented as clusters in conceptual space. The graded structure and fuzzy boundaries inherent in the prototype-periphery nature of these clusters dictate that the meaning of a specific emotion is governed by both inter- and intra-cluster relationships and their interactions. In addition to these relationships and interactions the paper examines both external and internal affects to compare and contrast the FEAR, COMPASSION, LOVE/JOY, and PRIDE clusters in British English and Polish. The three specific methods employed to analyze these are the GRID instrument, an online emotions sorting task, and a corpus-based cognitive linguistic methodology.

Keywords: emotions, conceptual clusters, British English, Polish, fear, compassion, love/joy, pride, GRID, online emotions sorting task, corpus methodology. 

 

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Elżbieta Magdalena Wąsik

Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of English, Department of Older Germanic Languages, Collegium Heliodori Święcicki, ul. Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań, Poland.

Email: wasik@wa.amu.edu.pl  

 

EXPOSING THE DIALOGICAL NATURE OF THE LINGUISTIC SELF IN INTERPERSONAL AND INTERSUBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS FOR THE PURPOSES OF LANGUAGE-AND-CONSCIOUSNESS-RELATED COMMUNICATION STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at elaborating the concept of linguistic self with regard to its twofold existence modes, namely as a physical person and as a mental subject, being shaped by external and internal dialogs in interpersonal and intersubjective communication. These dialogical encounters, constantly changing the reality of everyday life, are based, on the one hand, on the observable multitextuality of narratives, and on the other, on the multi-voicedness of opinions. As such, it lays emphasis on the need for a holistic approach to human beings as a psychosomatic unity, taking part in cognition with their minds and bodies, and developing itself both in-and-with the physical and logical domains of their surrounding ecosystems. In view of the private and public character of the self, the author postulates to consider in future studies the achievements of personal and social constructivism.

Keywords: cognition, consciousness, intersubjectivity, language, the dialogical self.  

 

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Zdzisław Wąsik

Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław, Department of Linguistic Semiotics and Communicology, ul. Sienkiewicza 32, 50-335 Wrocław.

E-mail: zdzis.wasik@gmail.com  

 

EPISTEMOLOGY AS A SEMIOTIC CARTOGRAPHY OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AND COGNITION

 

ABSTRACT

The subject matter of this article constitutes the semiotic mapping of human of knowledge which results from cognition. Departing from the presentation of human subjects as world-model-builders, it places epistemology among the sciences of science and the sciences of man. As such the understanding of epistemology is referred either to a static state of knowledge or to a dynamic acquisition of knowledge by cognizing subjects. The point of arrival, in the conclusive part of a this article, constitutes the substantiation of the two understandings of epistemology, specified, firstly, as a set of investigative perspectives, which the subject of science has at his/her disposal as a knower on the metascientific level, or, secondly, as a psychophysiological endowment of a cognizing subject who possesses the ability of learning and/or knowing a certain kind of information about cognized reality.

Keywords: cartography of ideas, epistemology, knowledge, cognition, semiotics.    

6/2018

Ignacy S. Fiut

AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30–059 Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: isf1949@o2.pl; isfiut@agh.edu.pl  

 

IS THE “FOURTH WORLD” POSSIBLE IN KARL R. POPPER’S EVOLUTIONARY EPISTEMOLOGY MODEL?

 

ABSTRACT

The work analyses the concept of three worlds formulated by Karl R. Popper. His arguments make it possible to distinguish in this field of research the fourth world— that of the development and application of human knowledge. The criteria of Popper's division are accepted and some doubts concerning his conception are dispelled by the arguments of researchers dealing with the evolution and development of traditional, electronic and Internet media. Those arguments point the need of the concept of fourth world. The author discusses the views of technological determinants in communication authored by M. McLuhan, D. De Kerckhove, P. Levinson, H. Jenkins and J. Pleszczyński who provide reasonable arguments for this new classification. The Popper’s model of three worlds is thus enriched by the fourth world—the world created by users of old and new media, the internet, and multimedia in communication. It is a real world, rooted in the three other worlds.

Keywords: Karl R. Popper’s three words, fourth world, new media of communication, M. McLuhan, D. De Kerckhove, P. Levinson, H. Jenkins and J. Pleszczyński.  

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail : stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl  

 

JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS: THE HUMANITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE UNITY OF SCIENCE CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

The author recounts the main threads of Jürgen Mittelstrass’s philosophy of the humanities. In it, the German philosopher starts out with the critique of J. Ritter’s and O. Maquard’s so-called functionalistic and dualistic conception of the human sciences, stating preference for methodological monism, which sees all sciences united by the universal rules of rationality. Mittelstrass seeks this unity both in the trans-disciplinary trends in contemporary science, as well as in certain epistemological similarities and similarities in research praxis between scientific disciplines. The author also points to Mittelstrass’s Kantian inspirations, and his clever adaptation of the “power of judgement” concept for the purposes of his own argumentation. In a final resume, he passes a generally positive opinion about the discussed conception with some critical comments.

Keywords: The humanities/the human sciences, rationality, the compensatory functions of the humanities, power of judgement, trans-disciplinary, research praxis.  

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

HOW IS SCIENCE UNIVERSAL?

 

ABSTRACT

I examine the problem of universalities of science and the thesis on the antiuniversality of science commonly postulated in socialized conceptions of science. In the paper epistemic universality, ethical-axiological and global cultural-social universality, and in the latter—global universality of the basic level are distinguished. It is investigated why in epistemology science is necessarily viewed as universal in its basic aspects. It is shown that universality is a necessary effect of validity and autonomy of science. It is also demonstrated that multiculturalism improperly treats science as necessarily anti-universalistic. I propose the position of global universalism of the basic level which claims that science emerges from the cultural basis, common for all the cultures. This universalism adopts multiculturalism (cultural pluralism) on higher levels of culture. I also consider how epistemic and global universality—features of science—become its values, and what are their significance for the human world.

Keywords: epistemology, socialized conceptions of science, the universality of science, epistemic universality, global social-cultural universality, universality as a value.   

 

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Marek Suwara

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków, Poland.

E-mail: marek marek.suwara@uj.edu.pl  

 

ANALOGIES REFERRING TO INFORMATION SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY IN EXPLAINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The level of adequacy of an analogy determines its effectiveness in scientific explanation. This thesis is examined in the context of analogies to information science and biology used in the concept of cultural meme, which is supposed to be substantial in explaining science or culture in the terms of evolution. It is shown that the choice of the cultural equivalent of biological specimen is crucial to interpreting the evolution of culture as that of the Lamarckian or Darwinian type.

Keywords: evolution, culture, analogy, meme.  

 

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Jagna Brudzińska

Husserl-Archiv der Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln, Niemcy.

E-mail: jbrudzinska@gmail.com  

 

PHENOMENOLOGY AS A THEORY OF EXPERIENCE AND SOME CHALLENGES OF THE TODAY HUMANITIES—NEW PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

Phenomenology is a philosophical project with vast potential, mainly methodological one, which has been not exploited in full until now. It is not limited to 20thcentury hermeneutics based on Heidegger’s views, nor to analytically founded contemporary investigations on language. Today this potential is revealed when the humanities and social studies face new challenges requiring new interpretations of human experience. Here transcendental phenomenology—as a theory of experience from the living perspective based on the intentional-genetic method—offers new research possibilities.

Keywords: transcendental phenomenology, intentional experience, experiential living perspective, motivation, developmental process.  

 

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Rafał Michalski

Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

E-mail: metasis@umk.pl  

 

WAS ARNOLD GEHLEN A NATURALISTIC REDUCTIONIST?

 

ABSTRACT

The article takes up a polemic with an accusation of naturalist reductionism, which allegedly constitutes the philosophical anthropology of Arnold Gehlen. In the first section of the article I will analyze the legitimacy of the charge of reductionism in the context of Gehlen’s considerations on human nature, in turn the subjcekt of the second part will be the concept of nature as an objective world, while the third and fourth sections will deal with issues concerning morality (3) and culture and human consciousness (4) in view of the allegation of the naturalism of his anthropological project. The author argues that Gehlen’s anthropology is aimed at integrating the results of the biological and social sciences, but he derives philosophical implications from them on such a level of generality that they go beyond the competence of specific sciences. Their findings acquire a universal meaning in his concept within the framework of a system of philosophical categories describing man as a whole project of nature. Gehlen rejects all attempts to create a general human theory on the basis of comparative studies that derive the property of the human condition from the animal world. Gehlen’s anthropobiology resigns from the concept of man’s nature in the biological sense, i.e. as a set of evolutionarily determined morphological, physiological and behavioral features, he also abandons the objectiveist concept of “external nature” as an ontical area independent of cultural mediation. Language, consciousness and culture are the result of processes compensating for biological deficits, and at the same time they represent the area of competence and values that are autonomous and autotelic, and therefore completely independent of biological conditions.

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, naturalistic reductionism, philosophical anthropology, culture, language, morality, institutions.    

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Pedagogical University of Krakow , Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com  

 

A VIEW ON HUMAN HERMENEUTIC CAPABILITIES FROM THE ZOOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to present the philosophical idea of origin of human capability to interpret and understand meanings. I am inspired by the results of contemporary cognitive and natural sciences as well as psychology. In view of those sciences one can defy hermeneutical concepts, which are embedded in the modern anthropocentric tradition. I would like to explain the ontological status of so-called hermeneutical skills in a naturalized form that does not avoid the continuous gradation of subject’s structures or abilities without falling into trivial reductionism. I demonstrate that the comprehensive formation of understanding processes is reserved for particular groups of human beings. However, it can be justified that different animal species and direct human ancestors are equipped with some elements of hermeneutical skills. These skills are a ground of the notion of Dasein. This paper begins my reflection on the natural history of human understanding and on polemics with anthropocentric philosophical hermeneutics. The basic aim of this work is to closely consider the hypothesis which states that the fundamental aspect of human existence (primordial modes) such as comprehension, attuning towards meanings or being-in-the-world can be grasped as natural adaptations of human and non-human organisms.

Keywords: hermeneutics, understanding, interpretation, evolution, sense, symbol.  

 

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Jarosław Mrozek

Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism, University of Gdansk, Jana Bażyńskiego 8, 80-309 Gdansk, Poland.

E-mail: filjam@ug.edu.pl   

 

IS THERE A CHANGE IN THE CRITERIA OF BEING A SCIENCE IN CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS?

 

ABSTRACT

The contemporary physical and cosmological theories confront philosophers and methodologists with a problem of scientific character of the considered ideas. It is mainly connected with the issue of their empirical testing. We know that many conceptions of contemporary physics, such as the conceptions of superstrings or of multiverse, have not been confirmed by even a single observation or experiment. In this situation there appear attempts to “weaken” methodological requirements imposed on theories to consider them as scientific after all. The challenge that physicists, philosophers and methodologists face is to attempt to define a feasible, possible to perform, non-empirical verification procedure in the case when these theories postulate the existence of basically non-observable areas of reality.

Keywords: testability; falsifiability; demarcation criteria; Popper; Bayesian methods; non-empirical theory confirmation.  

 

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Adam Krawiec, Marek Szydłowski, Paweł Tambor

Adam Krawiec  

Institute of Economics, Finance and Management of the Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 4, 30–348 Kraków.

E-mail: adam.krawiec@uj.edu.pl

Marek Szydłowski  

Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30–244 Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl

Paweł Tambor  

John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: pawel.tambor@kul.lublin.pl  

 

THE ONTOLOGICAL AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF COSMOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ON THE UNIVERSE

 

ABSTRACT

We discuss the specificity of modern cosmology understood as the physics of the Universe. We can treat cosmology as specific because of its object, i.e. the physical Universe is specific, as well as the ways of acquiring the knowledge about the Universe are specific. We argue that the specific and, in some sense, unique methodological nature of modern cosmology compared to physics is not controversial, as it is claimed among others by Helge Kragh. In our view this specificity is natural of cosmology itself and has its foundations in: 1) the asymmetry of prediction (which favors retrognosis), 2) the temporal nature of observations applied in cosmological investigations, 3) the horizon problem and the relevance of initial conditions for cosmological evolution.

Keywords: modern cosmology, philosophy of science, methodological specificity of cosmology, the evolution of the Universe.   

 

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Marek Gurba

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: marek.gurba@doctoral.uj.edu.pl  

 

ON NICHOLAS RESCHER’S ORIENTATIONAL PLURALISM IN METAPHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The article discusses Nicholas Rescher’s metaphilosophical view of orientational pluralism. In his essay Philosophical Disagreement: An Essay towards Orientational Pluralism in Metaphilosophy Rescher explains a substantial difference between philosophy and science—namely, that philosophers—differently than scientists— continuously propose and undermine various solutions to the same old problems. In philosophy it is difficult to find any consensus or convergence of theories. According to Rescher, this pluralism of theoretical positions is caused by holding by philosophers different sets and hierarchies of cognitive values, i.e. methodological orientations. These orientations are chosen in virtue of some practical postulates, they are of axiological, normative, but not strictly theoretical character. Different methodological orientations yield different evaluations of philosophical theses and arguments. This article shows that Rescher’s account does not determine clearly acceptable cognitive values. If there are no clear criteria of evaluation of methodological orientations, then the described view seems to be identical to relativism adopting the everything goes rule. In addition, accepting orientational pluralism it is hard to avoid the conclusion that discussions between various philosophical schools are futile or can be reduced to non-rational persuasion.

Keywords: metaphilosophy, Nicholas Rescher, relativism, methodology of philosophy, orientational pluralism.  

 

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Karolina Owczarek

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: karolina.m.owczarek@gmail.com  

 

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF MIND ON THE BASIS OF STANISŁAW LEM’S DIALOGUES

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to present Lem’s philosophy of mind. The author bases it on Dialogues — the first Lem’s philosophical essays published in 1957. It is emphasized that at that time Lem was influenced by cybernetics. I present connections between cybernetics and Lem's theory. He considered such issues as: consciousness, machine consciousness, personal identity. What is more, he investigated if immortality was available to human. I reconstruct his conception of mind and its anthropological and ontological consequences.

Keywords: Lem, philosophy of mind, mind uploading, cybernetics, personal identity, consciousness.  

 

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Andrzej Bronk, Monika Walczak

Andrzej Bronk  

John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: bronk@kul.lublin.pl

Monika Walczak

John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: aktor@kul.pl  

 

STANISŁAW KAMIŃSKI’S METHODOLOGICAL OPTIONS

 

ABSTRACT

Stanisław Kamiński (1919–1986) was a philosopher, philosopher of science and historian of science. His all academic carrier was pursuing at the Catholic University in Lublin (KUL). The main interests of Kamiński was the history of science and logic, general and special methodology, methodology of philosophy and (medieval) semiotics. He himself saw his main achievements in the domain of the theory of science and the methodology of classical philosophy, especially in the studies of the method and language of metaphysics. He gave a methodological description of general metaphysics, philosophical anthropology, ethics, philosophy of religion, philosophy of history and studies on religion (religiology). He investigated the beginnings of the mathematical induction in the Middle Ages and in modern times, the modern history of the theory of definition, theory of argumentation (reasoning), the structure and the evolution of scientific theory, deductive method, the achievements of logic and philosophy in Poland. A characteristic feature of Kamiński's philosophical and methodological approach was a specific historicism, consisting of referring to the heritage of the past and at the same time to the latest achievements in logic and philosophy of science. He had a broad concept of knowledge and was a maximalist both in raising questions and in giving answers. In accordance with classical philosophy he saw the substance of person as ens rationale, a being realizing himself in a disinterested search for a theoretical truth, whose highest expression is philosophy. He stressed the epistemological and methodological plurality of knowledge, distinguished and investigated material and formal parts of knowledge. He also distinguished—besides commonsense knowledge—the scientific, philosophical and theological knowledge, nonreducible each to other. At the top he set sapiential knowledge which is much more than a simple generalization of all particular kinds of knowledge. Kamiński derived his understanding of science from contemporary as well as classical philosophy. He determined the nature of science from the point view of its subject matter, aims, methods, logical structure and genesis. The question of what science was for him a philosophical question, presupposing an appropriate understanding of the nature of the world. Kamiński opted for a pluralistic approach to the world: the principal object of science is the objective world, subjective states of man and products of his mind and language. The best diagnostic test of the scientific character of science is the scientific method. Kamiński assumes here pluralism: different subject matter and different goals of scientific cognition require different research strategies and types of cognitive procedures. He also accepts an antinaturalistic position in the humanities which he regards as methodologically autonomous in regard to natural sciences. The publications of S. Kamiński include over 350 positions. During his life three books have been published: Georgonne'a teoria definicji [Georgonne's Theory of Definition], Lublin 1958; Pojęcie nauki i klasyfikacja nauk [Concept of Science and Classification of Sciences], Lublin 1961, 19813; and (together with M. A. Krąpiec) Z teorii i metodologii metafizyki [On the Theory and Methodology of Metaphysics], Lublin 1962. After his death five volumes of Collected Papers have been published: vol. I: Jak filozofować? [How to Philosophize? Studies in Methodology of Classical Philosophy], edited by Tadeusz Szubka, Lublin 1989; vol. II: Filozofia i metoda. Studia z dziejów metod filozofowania [Philosophy and Method. Studies from the History of the Method of Philosophizing], edited by Józef Herbut, Lublin 1993; vol. III: Metoda i język. Studia z semiotyki i metodologii nauk [Method and Language. Studies in Semiotics and Philosophy of Science], edited by Urszula Żegleń, Lublin 1994; vol. IV: Nauka i metoda. Pojęcie nauki i klasyfikacja nauk [Science and Method. Concept of Science and Classification of Sciences], edited by Andrzej Bronk, Lublin 1992); vol. V: Światopogląd – Religia – Teologia [Worldview – Religion – Theology], edited by Monika Walczak and Andrzej Bronk, Lublin 1998.

Keywords: definition of science, classification of sciences, ethics of science, humanities and natural sciences, methodology, philosophy, philosophy of science, rationality of science, science, scientific method, Stanisław Kamiński, theology, theory of science.  

 

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Józef Dębowski

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn, Poland.

E-mail: jozef.debowski@uwm.edu.pl  

 

THE DISPUTE ON THE SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF PHILOSOPHY. ON ZDZISŁAW CACKOWSKI’S DISCUSSION WITH PHENEMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I analytically reconstruct Zdzisław Cackowski’s basic ways of the understanding character of philosophy and science. I emphasize that according to Cackowski philosophy is a science (a nomothetic one) but simultaneously it is the most general science. Philosophy, like other sciences, satisfies conditions and criteria of being science. Besides its cognitive function, philosophy, like other sciences, plays practical functions; especially it is a basis of worldviews and ideologies. According to Cackowski, the specific character of philosophy arises from its universalistic aspirations and consists in a very high level of generality of discovered principles; those principles refer to the objective reality and knowledge on it. The specificity of philosophy also consists in—according to Cackowski—revealing the nature of qualitative jumps between basic segments of the real world, e.g. between quantum objects and macroscopic ones, between non-organic and organic nature; between neuronal processes and mind process etc. However, tending to not break the link between philosophy and reality, Cackowski grounds philosophical synthesis in scientific discoveries, results, and scientific praxis. Cackowski’s way of understanding of philosophy is, on the one hand, close to positivistic, scientific and Marxist concepts of philosophy, and on the other hand, it is opposite to the phenomenological concept of philosophy. Cackowski’s reservations and objections to the phenomenological project of philosophical investigations appear continuously in his works (they change only slightly in the course of time), and they refer to: (1) the scope and the meaning of the autonomy of sciences, (2) the rule of assumptionless standpoint (regardless of the level of its radicalism), (3) Husserl’s “rule of the all rules” as a basic methodological principle, (4) the phenomenological concept of direct experience, (5) the possibility and the range of eidetic knowledge, (6) the idea of transcendentalism and the concept of pure consciousness, (7) the essential fundamental position, motivated by Descartes’s ideas and irrational longing to discover the metaphysical and epistemological absolute.

Keywords: philosophy, science, phenomenology, Marxist philosophy, epistemology, reality, action, acquisition, knowledge, empiricism, inductionism, positivism, scientism, praxism, assumptionlessness (Voraussetzungslosigkeit, Vorurteilslosigkeit), the rule of assumptionlessness (das Prinzip der Voraussetzungslosigkeit), transcendentalism, eidetism, direct experience.  

 

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Anna Michalska

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: michalskanna@gmail.com  

 

STEFAN AMSTERDAMSKI’S CONCEPTION OF IDEAL OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: TOWARDS A NEW CONCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

The conception of ideals of science was Stefan Amsterdamski’s contribution to the dispute about scientific rationality. In assuming that scientific method is not an ahistorical phenomenon, and comes with rather strong normative pressupositions, Amsterdamski sides with Thomas Kuhn in his debate with Karl Popper and the latter’s followers and supporters. Essentially, however, Amsterdamski is a Popperian; he is intent on enlarging the scope of critical analysis by applying it to what he calls the modern ideal of science. His works, especially the monograph Pomiędzy historią a metodą [Between History and Method] are an attempt to safeguard the status of philosophy of science a normative instance with respect to ideals of science. In the paper I offer a reconstruction of Amsterdamski’s conception as well as scrutinize the relationship between his expressed philosophic goals and methods he employed in order to attain these goals. I indicate what I find most problematic in the concept of ideal of science and suggest an alternative view on the problems as raised by Amsterdamski. I argue that Amsterdamski’s work warrants an attempt at the formulation of a new conception of subject of science which would provide guidelines for a proper critique of modern science.

Keywords: ideals of science, scientific rationality, history of science, Stefan Amsterdamski, subject of science.  

 

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Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska

Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland.

E-mail: mkuszyk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl  

 

FLORIAN ZNANIECKI ON SCIENCE. THE ONTO-EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

 

ABSTRACT

I include Florian Znaniecki’s understanding of cultural sciences into a wider philosophical project which I call social onto-epistemology. The main aim of the paper is to reconstruct Znaniecki’s philosophy as a research effort to set the foundation of social sciences; the “foundation” is meant here as it is meant in 19th philosophical fundamentalism, i.e. as the search for the basis of legitimisation of social sciences. Despite of the non-originality of this aim, the measures and modes of its application in Znaniecki’s approach were fruitful. The onto-epistemological approach avoids Cartesian and Kantian dualisms and, pre-eminently, the monosubjective understanding of the cognitive subject. The graduation of realness with regard to the object of social science, objectivity as belonging to many systems of cultural objects are main invention on this path. The main onto-epistemological premise of Znaniecki’s strategy is as follows: Human knowledge is deeply rooted in human social existence, and the human mode of existence, in turn, contains necessarily and essentially an epistemic component.

Keywords: Znaniecki, onto-epistemology, science, social sciences.  

 

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Grzegorz Pyszczek

The Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education, Szczęśliwicka 40, 02-353 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: gpyszczek@poczta.onet.pl  

 

THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE SAGE. ON FLORIAN ZNANIECKI’S CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

The article concerns Florian Znaniecki’s problem of social role of the sage. The first part of the article presents the concept of social role of the sage in the context of other social roles of scholars. In the second part, Znaniecki’s view is confronted with the contemporary social and scientific realities.

Keywords: Florian Znaniecki, sage, wisdom, social role of the man of knowledge.   

 

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Marta Błaszczyńska

Graduate School for Social Research, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: marta.blaszczynska@hotmail.co.uk  

 

ARNOLD GEHLEN’S MAN, PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOME QUESTIONS ASKED DBY CONTEMPORARY READERS

 

ABSTRACT

I examine the key elements of Arnold Gehlen’s concept of human being as it is presented in his book Man, His Nature and Place in the World. I analyze his attempt to interpret the human as a whole and to define humanity as a species which is “lacking” and whose acts must compensate for its “primitive” traits. I briefly present selected questions and difficulties that might be posed by the contemporary reader upon learning about Gehlen’s understanding of the human being and his vision of philosophical anthropology, its aims and methodology.

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, philosophical anthropology, German philosophy, human nature.  

 

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Grzegorz Smoliński

Institute of Sociology, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3, 52–007 Wrocław, Poland.

E-mail: grzegorz.smolinski@uwr.edu.pl  

 

SCIENCE AND ITS CRITIQUE: THE CONTEXT OF ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

The article starts with the considerations presented by Małgorzata Czarnocka in her paper O krytyce nauki [On a Critique of Science] (Czarnocka 2017) in order to consider the critical potential of dualism—the ideal of science—practice of science. These considerations are compared with the Actor-Network Theory, which, on the one hand, in its theses about science approaches to the image criticized by Czarnocka, but, on the other hand, retains a similar critical potential. This is despite the fact that ANT this theory programmatically rejects the duality ideal–praxis. Presented considerations focus on designating common points and differences between the dualistic and non-dualistic approaches in the context of Czarnocka’s article.

Keywords: dualism, non-dualism, criticism of science, Latour, Actor-Network Theory.   

5/2017

Ewa Nowak, Roberto Franzini Tibaldeo

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: ewanowak@amu.edu.pl

Université Catholique de Louvain, Place de l’Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgia

E-mail: roberto.franzini@uclouvain.be  

 

ORGANISM AND FREEDOM. PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE AND ETHICS OF LIFE SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

The authors revisit the claims of Hans Jonas’s postdualistic ontology of a living being. Life’s immanent potentialities evolve, until the human being develops her technologies, freedom, reason, and, finally, the responsibility to restrain own excessive usage of technologies and protect her open-ended potentialities. The paper relies on the ideas described in Organism and Freedom, Jonas's magnum opus in his own eyes.

Keywords: Hans Jonas, living being, organism, postdualistic ontology, teleology, evolution, freedom, responsibility, technology, risk, ethics, philosophy, science.  

 

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Małgorzata Leśniewska, Piotr Leśniewski  

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: malgorzata.lesniewska@amu.edu.pl

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: grus@amu.edu.pl  

 

“NON-NORMAL BODY.” ON THE ROLE OF ANOMALY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

In recent years a number of anomalies in specimens of the species Haplophilus subterraneus (Shaw, 1789) in the class Chilopoda were discovered. This particular case of the deformed body provokes to reinterpretation of the history and evolution of cultural attitudes towards the body affected by malformations. In this paper we present changes of perceptions, attitudes and interpretations of anomalous forms— from surprise or horror to an interpretation which results in a great progress in science and in explanations of many elements of developmental processes and evolution of organisms.

Keywords: anomaly, evolution, development, evo-devo.   

 

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Ewa Nowak

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: ewanowak@amu.edu.pl   

 

“BODILY CONSTITUTION” IN SUBJECTIVE AND INTERSUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE: APPROACHING THE PHENOMENON OF ALLOTRANSPLANTATION

 

ABSTRACT

The paper examines phenomenological concepts of body and psychosomatic identity to explain the facial allotransplant experience. The first three sections show how did the concept of own body/embodiment evolve in philosophy, the last three – how body had been re–opened to the transcorporeality. The author undertakes efforts to balance an ontological, nonreductionistic and postdualistic account which could be shared across the boundaries between life sciences and humanities. Facial allograft phenomenon and the redefinition of personal somatic identity are considered in both disciplines.

Keywords: organism, body, somatic identity, intercorporeality, allotransplant, faciality, phenomenology, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Schmitz, Jonas, postdualism.

 

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Filip Bardziński  

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: fmbardzinski@gmail.com  

 

ON MAINE DE BIRAN’S AND MICHEL HENRY’S HOLISTIC MODEL OF HUMAN NATURE

 

ABSTRACT

The article proposes a holistic model of human nature, based on philosophy and anthropology of Maine de Biran, and on Michel Henry’s phenomenology of body.

Keywords: Maine de Biran, Michel Henry, systemic theory of health, biological recductionism, holism.  

 

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Paweł Ciniewski

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: lorayanz@gmail.com  

 

TRANSHUMANISM’S AMBIVALENT VIEW TOWARDS CORPOREITY

 

ABSTRACT

The article examines the relation between transhumanism and the notion of corporeity. The author presents six approaches to corporeity according to Tom Ziemke, including those which are favorable to the transhumanist vision of the future. Then the author examines the role of the human body in the transhumanist project of the posthuman. In the last, central section it is argued that transhumanism displays an ambivalent view towards corporeity.

Keywords: transhumanism, ambivalence, corporeity, organismoid embodiment, organismic embodiment.

 

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Jonasz Pawlaczyk

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: jonaszpawlaczyk@wp.pl  

 

WHAT FUTURE FOR CORPOREALITY?

 

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the potentialities of body’s technological enhancement. It refers to Juan Enriquez who advocated a need for human body transformations and benefits resulting from them for individuals and the whole humanity. Should the "standard" biological embodiment be enhanced if a favorable opportunity is at our disposal? The importance of that question increases when facing a colonization of another planets in case of a planetary disaster. According to Enriquez, it would be unethical not to modify the human body. The article examines some lacks in Enriquez’ reasoning, including the lack of reflection towards the subjectivity of radically modified human body.

Keywords: evolving body, technology, future, bionics, Juan Enriquez.  

 

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Tomasz Burdzik

Affiliation: Pontifical University of John Paul II in Cracow, Kanoniczna 9/203, 31–069 Cracow

E-mail: tomasz.burdzik@gmail.com  

 

PREDATORY JOURNALS AS AN EXAMPLE OF UNETHICAL PUBLISHING

 

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the phenomenon of predatory journals, the characteristics of predatory journals, including spamming and using fake metrics, and the problems they cause for science. Predatory journals often fail to properly manage peer review, allowing pseudo-science to be published dressed up as authentic science. Predatory journals frequently have imaginary editorial boards, do not operate any quality control, are unclear about payment requirements and about ownership or location, include plagiarised content. Predatory publishers generally behave unethically. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development and how researchers can avoid becoming victimized by them.

Keywords: predatory journals; publication ethics; predatory publishers.  

 

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Mateusz Szymczycha  

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mszymczycha@poczta.onet.pl

 

BEYOND TEXT—ON CHRISTOPH WULF’S HISTORICAL-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The article is a summary of the key theoretical inspirations and theses of historical- cultural anthropology as presented in Christoph Wulf’s book Anthropology. History – Culture – Philosophy and an attempt to place the views on the analogy between culture and text—as well as on the relationship between thought, language and image—advocated therein in a broader theoretical context.

Keywords: historical-cultural anthropology, the body in culture, semiotics.

 

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Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland

E-mail: pbytniewski@tlen.pl

 

THE PAST AND FUTURE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

We recognize cultures in differences, while we perceive human beings through the similarities between them. It is a paradox that makes cultural anthropology difficult for us, because its ethos and methods make pressure for us to change the way of perception our own social environment. Thus, as a result, cultural anthropology produces and develops quite peculiar experience of itself, which J. J. Rousseau named sentiment d’existence. According to C. Lévi-Strauss, Rousseau is the father of ethnology, because he was the first European intellectual who understood that alienation in relation to the Same is the price at we have to pay for getting to know the Other. What, for the understanding of the West, is the meaning of the disappearance of ethno-worlds? How blurring of ethno-diversity of the world shaped not only the past and the future of cultural anthropology, but an understanding of the past and the future of culture, from which it is derived? Cultural anthropology, or as it is called in Britain, social anthropology, pervades a kind of anxiety about its cognitive status. Cultural anthropology is not sure whether its interest in exotic cultures is not already late, still suspects that its research is not on time. Well reflects this contemporary condition of cultural anthropology the book by Alan Barnard entitled History and Theory in Anthropology. In fact, the book is a combination of an academic discussion of the history of the discipline with the excursus towards new areas of exploration of anthropological instigated by perception of differences, still active. This means the return in the practices of research and writing practices of anthropologists to looking from a distance on the social worlds that are pretty close. The paper discusses problems and opinion entered upon in mentioned book.

Keywords: culture, history of cultural anthropology, J.J. Rousseau, C. Lévi- Strauss, A. Barnard.

 

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Paweł Urbański

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: paziu1984@wp.pl  

 

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU: ENLIGHTENMENT AND WRITING BY HIMSELF

 

ABSTRACT

The present paper aims at presenting Jean Jacques Rousseau as an anthropologist of modernity. I argue that between his Confessions and other works concerning origins of the social order there is an inner connection which determined his mode of the social world knowing. I propose to define this mode by use of the contemporary concept of socially situated cognition. The epistemological restriction of situated cognition is an ontological opportunity to grasp the complexity of the social world without reducing it to the object as a result of synthetic capabilities of enlightened reason. Thus the main problem of Confessions can be read as the question: What kind of inner work researcher should perform to achieve the self-ruling position which enables him to look at the social world from an uninvolved point of view? I claim that Rousseau in Confessions as well as in other his works makes the same work. On the one hand, he reconstructs his own social situation as a scholar what makes him a contemporary anthropologist who penetrates mentally numerous social worlds. On the other hand, he also writes as an enlightened lawmaker, who proposes a new social participation as the universal form of political community. Therefore the craft of writing of confessions, memories, etc. becomes a simple tool which enables the relentless process of self-reference on practical and theoretical levels of science, especially social science.

Keywords: Enlightenment, social science, writing, situated cognition.  

 

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Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland

E-mail: mkuszykbyt@gmail.com  

 

OBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIFICATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

Objectivity is a category which has double reference: to cognition, as its valuable trait, and to being, as a very existence of what is assumed as real. Nonetheless, modern concept of objectivity lean toward epistemological interpretation and is accommodate to requirements of modern natural science, but not to needs of social sciences. Thus, in a ground of natural sciences, objectivity is equating with methodologically carrying neutralization of subjectivity. This received view becomes more complicated as social sciences allowed to speak. An exposure of socially determined traits of objectivity is a point of complication in a history of its interpretation, because social sciences are entangled with a double reference mentioned above. As a result, essential question emerged: a problem of relation between objectivity and objectification as a practical process of realisation. Interdependence of objectivity and objectification puts into social theory an onto-epistemological characterisation of both qualification. They participate in the problematisation of a concept of social reality to the same extent. The main purpose of paper is to show and discuss the problem. The conclusion is intended to indicate special status of objectivity in social sciences.

Keywords: objectivity, objectification, social sciences, epistemocentrism.  

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

ON THE CRITICISM OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

I analyse the contemporary negative attitude toward science—common both in philosophy and beyond it, in intellectual milieus—and demonstrate, by basing on the distinction ideal–praxis of science, that the objections against science in philosophy are doubtful and one-sided. Especially doubtful, deforming the image of science are two main arguments: on instrumentalising reason by science and on the oppressive role of science in the today human world. I claim that the today increasing gap between the ideal of science and its today praxis is an essential problem of the contemporary science and the human world.

Keywords: critics of science, ideal of science, praxis of science, The Frankfurt School, postmodernism, instrumental reason, social role of science.

 

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Ignacy S. Fiut  

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland

Email: isf1949@o2.pl i isfiut@agh.edu.pl  

 

KNOWLEDGE IN TERMS OF EVOLUTIONARY REALISM OF BOLESLAW JÓZEF GAWECKI

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the views of a Polish philosopher Bolesław Józef Gawecki (1889–1984) related to his concept of evolutionary realism, which plays a key role in his evolutionary concept of knowledge. The philosopher justifies the development of the natural and social sciences in the framework of the so-called “metaphysical systemat.” He considers knowledge a form of adaptation of the evolving human subject of cognition to the evolving environment of its life and activity. These views are an explication of positivist philosophy, especially empiriocriticism in the spirit of critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

Keywords: Bolesław Gawecki, evolutionary conception of knowledge, evolutionary realism, metaphysical systemat, Immanuel Kant.

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com   

 

KNOWLEDGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MEMETIC DETERMINISM

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to overcome some theoretical limitations as regards understanding and explanation of the knowledge notion. I present the memetic perspective of the issue of knowledge. The main aim is to deepen the analysis of knowledge phenomenon and to enrich previous knowledge notion with crossing, natural and semiotical points of view. The next aim is to try to answer the question about the nature of knowledge, the way of knowledge existence and the area of occurrence of knowledge. Some main attributes of memes, their hallmarks, basic functions and possible classification are examined. I also discuss the actions of memetic mechanisms of knowledge: some forms of knowledge externalisation; knowledge proliferation; cooperation and competition of information. At the end of the article there are summative reflections and author’s conclusions.

Keywords: memes, memetics, evolution, procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge.

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com  

 

WHY ANIMALS KNOW ANYTHING? AN OUTLINE OF THE SOCIOBIOLOGICAL IDEA OF KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the notion of knowledge in the sociobiological perspective. This perspective focuses on some selected, representative views, which grasp the phenomenon of knowledge in the context of logotaxis, neophilia and intentionality phenomena and the so-called theory of mind. One of basic aims of the so chosen context is the impeachment of the notion of knowledge subject that functions within traditional epistemology or philosophical anthropology, and the extending of the influence of sociobiological idea of cognition and knowledge in contemporary philosophy. The paper includes introductory methodological remarks, the analysis of logotaxis as a natural tendency to search and absorb some information, the analysis of neophilia as a natural predisposition to permanent exploratory behaviours; a critical discussion on the occurrence of knowledge phenomenon and metacognition among non-human animals; and a recapitulation of the considerations.

Keywords: sociobiology, logotaxis, neophilia, evolution, knowing-that, knowing- how.

 

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Mariusz Mazurek  

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mariuszmazure@o2.pl

 

TWO TYPES OF MODELS IN SCIENCE AND PROBLEM OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY AND ISSUES OF REPRESENTATION

 

ABSTRACT

In the article the models which are reconstructed in the philosophy of science from the praxis of science are divided into two main types: 1) analogue- and metaphor- based models and 2) representational models. I examine functions of the models of both the types, and demonstrate that the models of type 1) are used in science as instruments of acquiring new knowledge on the basis of a knowledge accepted earlier; and models of type 2) are used to create cognitive “images” of reality. I demonstrate that in the philosophy of science the problem areas generated by two functions of models are entirely isolated one from another. Whereas they are nonseparably linked one to another. I postulate the necessity of linking them in one unified conception of models, and then in one conception of science. Therefore such a conception of models is needed which will explain how models play two functions simultaneously, i.e. how they function in the context of discovery and how they represent reality.

Keywords: model, analogy, metaphor, representation.

 

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Andrzej Wilk

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: awilk@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

ABSOLUTISM AND ONTOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The text considers the link between logic and ontology in the context of the problem of future truth. The main issue examined in this paper is the following one: the classical logic is strongly insensitive to the ontological determinism-indeterminism problem.

Keywords: determinism, indeterminism, future truth, Twardowski, Kotarbiński, Łukasiewicz, Leśniewski, Quine, Davidson, von Wright.

 

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Józef L. Krakowiak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, WSEZiNS, Łódź Poland

E-mail: j.k.l@wp.pl

 

ANDRZEJ GRZEGORCZYK’S ENDOCENTRIC RELATIONS WITH HIMSELF AS CONNECTIONS WITH VALUES, CULTURE AND LIFE IN GENERAL

 

ABSTRACT

Andrzej Grzegorczyk’s imperative “to give evidence to the internally lived truth” is close to personalistic Christian existentialism which does not only tend to externalise the authentic experiences of I, but also—as the ancient philosophers of life— trains a chosen attitude toward being. In his relational and activistic conception of the person which experiences values Grzegorczyk emphasizes the cognitive and analytic roles of knowing itself on each level of many-layered relational structure which is the human person. He also emphasizes the ethical role of forming the unity of the person’s nature. Defending the autonomy of the human person, Grzegorczyk approves pressure exerting by it on itself. Grzegorczyk restores the ancient dimension of ethics viewed as a theory and practice of forming itself. He rejects—after Abraham Maslow—the perspective of the psychology of deficiency, based on behaviourism and psychoanalysis. He assigns to the man a humanistic perspective of growth and excess character of living values as a main factor of human activity.

Keywords: Andrzej Grzegorczyk, ethics, Christian existentialism, values.

 

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Paweł Zagożdżon

Affiliation: Medical University of Gdansk, Dębinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland

E-mail: pzagoz@gumed.edu.pl  

 

THE RELATION BETWEEN TWO PARADIGMS – THE RELIGIOUS PSYCHIATRIST

 

ABSTRACT

The difference between psychiatry and religion is narrow. Religious and spiritual beliefs frequently are involved in the clinical picture. Despite recent changes in the attitudes of academic psychiatry towards religion the historic tensions between religion and psychiatry does not always allow to include religious spirituality in psychiatric practice. Researches show that psychiatrists are less religious than other physicians, and religious physicians are less willing than nonreligious physicians to refer patients to psychiatrists. The religious psychiatrist is in a difficult position. His own religious belief is confronted with religious beliefs of his patients and with the biomedical paradigm of mental illness in psychiatry. I analyse in this paper several questions. What are the boundaries of the scientific paradigm in psychiatry? What should be the role of evangelism in psychiatric treatment? Should psychiatrists urge their patients to become Christians? When the spiritual dilemma should be viewed from the psychopathological perspective Some epidemiologic studies showed that the involvement of religious beliefs in p psychiatric treatment leads to better outcomes in patients with depression but not schizophrenia patients. The spiritual orientation is also an important aspect of the recovery in the addiction treatment.

Keywords: psychiatry, mental illness, religious beliefs, religious psychiatrist.  

 

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Magdalena Łata

Affiliation: The Faculty of History, University of Warsaw, Nowy Świat 69, 00-001 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: magdalena.lata@onet.eu  

 

THE PAINTING MELANCHOLY BY JACEK MALCZEWSKI IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I analyse the painting Melancholy by Jacek Malczewski in the context of the theory of cognitive linguistics. I transfer the principles of the analysis paradigms of language – which have been studied intensively since the eighties of the twentieth century – to the field of visual art. I refer to a few key aspects of these studies, by choosing the sets which create complementary and mutually enriching content useful for the intended task. The analysis of painting is preceded by the outline of the theory of metonymy, metaphor and conceptual blends.

Keywords: metonymy, metaphor, conceptual blending theory, image schema, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Gilles Fauconnier, Mark Turner.  

 

 

 

4/2016

Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

Email: pbytniewski@tlen.pl

 

ALTHUSSER AND FOUCAULT—TWO EPISTEMOLOGIES OF READING

 

ABSTRACT

The philosophical reconstruction of texts, utterances, discourses, sciences—in this way we can formulate the task set in Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault’s works. Both the philosophers determine this task non-identically, although their paths often intersect with each other. Anyway, this kind of work includes a condition essential to meet the requirement of the purity of epistemological intentions. In the task of this kind a way of readings texts must be set it, namely the way which would allow to epistemologically criticize the matter of discourse-subject. The satisfaction of this condition would give the whole enterprise a character of a productive conception, enriching our knowledge on the way of speaking about the truths known in the history of thought. What is the “culture of the word” in which Althusser and Foucault have developed proposals for the epistemologically valid theory of reading? What is the richness of research programmes which have become the matrix of these reconstructions, and what is its concern to this culture? Critics, refutations or another way of special treatment? What the reform of the relation between significant and signifié they offer? These problems are considered in the paper.

Keywords: Althusser, Foucault, the culture of word, simptomal lecture, discourse.

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw

SCIENCE CONSTITUTED BY INTERESTS. ON JÜRGEN HABERMAS’ CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

I reconstruct and analyse Jürgen Habermas’ conception of three interests and subordinated to them three types of sciences; this conception has been presented mainly in his Knowledge and Interests (1968) and in the New Introduction to the fourth German edition of the Theory and Practice (1971). The present validity of the conception is due to its two properties. First, it includes a non-standard, alternative to today’s dominated view on the nature and role of science. Second, it is a currently rare theory of science founded anthropologically, with evolutionary theories threads, however, weakened in comparison with the consistent Darwinism by introducing the spiritual sphere, transcending biologicality.

Keywords: Jürgen Habermas, cognitive interest, the role of science.

 

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Konrad Waloszczyk

Affiliation: Higher School of Firefighting, ul. Słowackiego 52/54, 01–629 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: konradw@upcpoczta.pl

RELIGION AND SCIENCE IN THE PIERRE TEILHARD DE CHARDIN WORKS (1881–1955)

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is a concise presentation of the main traits of the Pierre Teilhard de Chardin thought with special attention to the relationship between religion and science. There is a widely accepted opinion in commentaries to Teilhard that he has done with a far going reconciliation of these domains of culture. He has shown them up as two meridians which do not merge but are bound to converge as they approach the pole. The article also contains a reply to the critique of the Teilhardian thought put forward by some philosophers and biologists: Bertrand Russell, Peter Medawar, Richard Dawkins, Władysław Kunicki–Golfinger and Zdzisława Piątek. Their contention is that a higher consciousness is not superior to the lower, and that evolution has no direction. But how can they explain that people often love to know for its own sake? And why more cerebrated and more conscious creatures appeared in evolution not randomly and not before but always after less conscious ones? Furthermore a question has been raised whether the Teilhard’s system is in some way falsifiable. The answer has been suggested that the remarkable scientific and technological progress and the greatest in the human history wave of globalization, which all took place after his death (1955), seem to confirm his ideas.

Keywords: cosmogenesis, evolution, consciousness, noosphere, religion, science, technology.

 

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Rafał Michalski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

E-mail: metasis@umk.pl

THE CONCEPT OF THE SPATIALIZED SUBJECT IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF ARNOLD GEHLEN

 

ABSTRACT

The article considers the problem of subjectivity in the light of Arnold Gehlen’s philosophical anthropology and theory of institutions. The main objective of the prsened analysis is a constructive reconstruction of the theory of subjectification, present in the work of the German anthropologist in the form of a heterogeneous, often directly unrelated motifs. Describing the successive stages of subjectification, we will show that this process occurs in a “phenomenal space” of human embodiment subordinated to the requirements of action (1), and requires a support from external institutional devices. Other discussed development stages are: the sensorimotor control and regulation of drives (2), habitualization and ritualisation of human behavior (3) and institutionalization (4). The result of these processes is, according to Gehlen, the formation of character (hexis) (5) and awareness (6).

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, philosophical anthropology, spatialized subject, imagination, language, institution, discipline, habitualization, ritualisation, consciousness.

 

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Jakub Gomułka

Affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy of the Pontifical University of John Paul II in Crocow, ul. Kanonicza 9, 31-002 Crocow, Poland.

Email: jakub.gomulka@upjp2.edu.pl

COUNTERINTUITIVE OR INCONSISTENT THEORY OF INTENTIONALITY?
A DISPUTE BETWEEN DENNETT AND SEARLE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper compares the conceptions of intentionality held by the two leading figures in the contemporary philosophy of mind: John Searle and Daniel Dennett. I explain the relation between Searle’s theories in philosophy of language and his theory of intentionality and his idea of three kinds of intentionality. Then I present Dennett’s theory of intentionality as an adaptive feature and his idea of intentional stances. I underline the fact that, using Searle’s vocabulary, according to Dennett no creature or artifact possesses intrinsic intentionality — all we deal with is just derived intentionality: the intentionality the observer attributes to a being in order to form a better prediction of the being’s behavior. The consequence of this standpoint is highly counterintuitive: Dennett must (and in fact does) accept a claim that the observer’s own intentionality is also only attributed to one by some other observers in order to form better prediction of one’s behavior. This claim is rejected by Searle as an obvious absurd. I argue that Searle’s standpoint is founded on the Cartesian grounds and point to the similarity between his critique of Dennett and Husserl’s critique of naturalism. Since Searle claims his conception to be naturalistic, his theory is inconsistent.

Keywords: intentionality, naturalism, artificial intelligence, syntactic machine, John R. Searle, Daniel C. Dennett.

 

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Barbara Trybulec

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

Email: barbara.trybulec@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

WHAT DOES MICROSOFT THINK ABOUT? SOME CONTROVERSIES OVER THE GROUP AGENCY

 

ABSTRACT

The extended mind thesis is sometimes used in the argumentation for the group agency. Those who are ready to explain the behavior of some groups in terms of their intentional states argue that the system composed of many individuals can constitute an agent which is in many respects analogous to the individual cognitive subject. In the paper I argue that the choice between the individualistic and holistic perspectives with regard to the explanation of group behavior is determined by the chosen research problems. By indicating selected positions towards group intentional states I evaluate how far we can draw an analogy between individual and group agency.

Keywords: group agency, mental state, emergence, reductionism

 

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Jarosław Mrozek

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism, University of Gdansk, ul. Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland.

Email: filjam@ug.edu.pl

IS THERE A RETREAT FROM NATURALISM IN PHYSICS?

 

ABSTRACT

Naturalism claims that everything that exists is Nature. There does not exist any other reality, apart from the natural one. Naturalists require that all phenomena have to be explained only by their natural causes. Natural causes are the ones that are accessible for scientific cognition. Science (physics) tries to describe this reality basing on observation and experiment as the foundation of creating theoretical constructs (theories) pertaining to natural phenomena. Mark Steiner, in his book entitled The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem, puts forward a surprising thesis that contemporary physicists in their work retreat from the naturalist vision of science because—as the author states—the real scientific activity does not comply with their basic methodological and philosophical convictions (with naturalism). To support his thesis he points to numerous cases of significant discoveries in the newest history of physics in which the decisive role was played by human imagination and not experimental facts. This way of discovering laws in contemporary physics is—in his view—antinaturalist in the sense that it relies more on human invention, on manipulating formal structures by the use of mathematical analogies than on the methods of classical empiricism. Such an approach—in his opinion—privileges a human and not naturalist (empirical) point of view. Steiner regards that it indicates a turn towards an anthropocentric viewpoint in the methodology of physics. In my view it is an over-interpretation of “natural” cognitive procedures existing in contemporary science and relying on the use of a well-known scheme: problem—hypothesis—criticism—problem modification. Moreover, Steiner’s suggestions do not match facts concerning the development of the newest cosmology in which scientific development is stimulated by using sophisticated observations.

Keywords: Mathematics, physics, structure, analogy, naturalism, anthropocentrism.

 

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Rafał Antoni Kupczak

PhD, a graduate of the University of Silesia in Katowice and the Academy Ignatianum in Cracow, currently an independent researcher.

Email: rafalkupczak@wp.pl

A VIEW ON THE PROBLEM OF ANTHROPOGENESIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE DISCUSSION ON THE RESULTS OF THE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF APES TOOL ABILITIES

 

ABSTRACT

The question of the origin of human tool competence is one of the key mysteries of anthropogenesis. In recent years experiments have been carried out to verify the competence in the production of stone tools by apes. Interpretations of the results of the experiments are the source of a serious controversy both in the assessment of the tool competence of apes as well as in their extrapolation of these skills to determine the sources utilities competence of our ancestors.

Keywords: anthropogenesis, hominids tool making, primates tool making, experiments with the production of stone tools.

 

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Krzysztof Abriszewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Email: krzabr@umk.pl

US – SUBJECTS OF SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED KNOWLEDGE. REINTERPRETATIONS AND EXPANSIONS OF PETER BERGER AND THOMAS LUCKMANN’S SOCIAL PHENOMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I attempt to realize three tasks. First, I elaborate Peter Berger’s and Thomas Luckmann’s social ontology of knowledge, mainly by referring to the concepts of everyday lifeworld, knowledge, objectification, justification, and symbolic universe. Second, I offer two interpretations of the notion of everyday lifeworld: the first using the metaphor of a cocoon or a room, and the second using the notion of a rhizome or a metaphor of a network. Third, I argue for the extending of Berger—Luckmnann’s position with Anthony Giddens’ theory of modernity and Slavoj Žižek’s theory of ideology. Such an expanded perspective derived from phenomenological social theory would enable us—I argue—to undertake the problem-posed by Michel Foucault in his What Is Enlightenment? — of analysing ourselves as subjects of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge, social ontology of knowledge, everyday lifeworld, justification, symbolic universe, modernity, abstract systems, rhizome, ideology, desire.

 

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Andrzej W. Nowak

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

Email: andrzej.w.nowak@gmail.com

DOES RWANDA EXIST? AXIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE ONTOLOGICAL TURN IN SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to show consequences of the ontological turn in studies on science and technology. In article the author uses as a conceptual tool the concept of ontological imagination, which is a radicalization of the sociological imagination (C. W. Mills). Author analyzes three ways of interpreting the genocide in Rwanda. To avoid the relativistic deadlock he proposes a shift from the epistemocentric to ontological approach method. This shift may be defined as “ontological policies” and “ontonorms” (A. Mol). In result, ontological dimensions of axiological choices are revealed.

Keywords: ontological turn, ontological policies, social imagination, ontological imagination.

 

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Mirosław Chałubiński

Affiliation: Institute of Sociology, The University of Zielona Góra, Al. Wojska Polskiego 69, 65-762 Zielona Góra, Poland.

E-mail: mirek_chalubinski@onet.pl

LESZEK KOŁAKOWSKI – AN UNKNOWN CONSTRUCTIVIST

 

ABSTRACT

The paper presents Leszek Kołakowski’s philosophy by comparing it not only with different constructivist threads in epistemology (among others, Richard Rorty’s neopragmatism and methodological anarchism), but also with Marxist revisionism (Stanisław Brzozowski, Antonio Gramsci, György Lukács). The epistemologies emphasizing an active role of the subject in cognition are here taken into account. Their common attribute is frequently scepticism and agnosticism. The paper also shows some ideological-political implications of Kołakowski’s research in the period of the Warsaw School of History of Ideas in 1955–1968.

Keywords: Leszek Kołakowski, Richard Rorty, constructivism, active role of the cognitive subject, The Warsaw School of History of Ideas, anti-fundamentalist philosophy of science, sociology of knowledge, revisionism.

 

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Krzysztof Chodasewicz

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: kchodasewicz@o2.pl

NATURAL SELECTION, EVOLUTION OF CULTURE, DAWKINS’S PARADOX

 

ABSTRACT

The article analyses the concept of memetic evolution of culture, especially the concept of natural selection assumed by it. The article shows that the replicatorinteractor conception of natural selection created by Richard Dawkins requires that the memetic hypothesis includes conditions that are extremely difficult (if not impossible) to meet. This leads to a paradox: from one hand, Dawkins is the father of the concept of Darwinian evolution of culture, from the other hand, he assumes the concept of selection impeding research on this (hypothetical) phenomenon. It is more proper to think about the Darwinian evolution of culture taking as a starting point of the standard approach of natural selection (by Lewontin, Maynard Smith and Endler). I do not state if the Darwinian evolution of culture actually takes place. I examine instead the conceptual framework of reflecting on this subject. Moreover, I consider the related issue: can culture—if it indeed evolves in a Darwinian way—be considered a form of life? I do not state if culture is alive, but analyse the preliminary problems founding a reflection on this subject.

Keywords: natural selection, Dawkins, replicator-interactor approach to natural selection, memetics, definition of life.

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, ul. Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

Email: murbaniak78@gmail.com

PHYLOGENETIC JUSTIFICATION OF COMPREHENSION PHENOMENON AND PROCEDURAL AND DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to justify the phenomenon of comprehension—functioning generally in Heidegger’s and Gadamer’s hermeneutics—from the perspective of naturalistically oriented philosophy. As a consequence, a naturalistic perspective is proposed — presented by Dennett, Lorenz, Wuketits, Vollmer—on the phenomenon of knowledge and the notion of knowledge functioning in the analytic tradition. More precisely, the basic aim of this article is a critical analysis of the thesis saying that even though the way of being called “comprehension” is the source of explanation by theoretical and practical knowledge, the explanation and understanding capacities are onto-cognitive structures with a phylogenetic basis. These structures emerged in the process of evolution. As a result of above reflection there is thesis: declarative knowing-that and procedural knowing-how have also their sources in the phylogenetic process. This work also attempts to clarify the notion of knowledge from a naturalistic point of view, as an alternative to the conception of knowledge presented in Plato’s Theaetetus.

Keywords: comprehension, explanation, know-how, know-that, phylogenetics, evolution, adaptation.

 

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Ignacy S. Fiut

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland.

Email: isf1949@o2.pl

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE IN EVOLUTIONARY TERMS ACCORDING TO TADEUSZ GARBOWSKI

 

ABSTRACT

The work presents a reconstruction of Tadeusz Garbowski’s evolutionary theory of knowledge and conception of knowledge as a form of life. This Cracow philosopher introduced them in two works: The Life and Knowledge (1903), and Cognition as a biological agent (1910). According to him, human knowledge, unlike animal knowledge, is conscious. Its functioning is based on a subconscious predisposition to its acquisition, which expresses man’s “cognitive instinct”. Knowledge as a result of continuous learning is primarily an adaptive value to the natural, social and cultural conditions of life. The truth of knowledge lies in the fact that it can properly and creatively adapt to the environmental conditions. The criterion of its truth expresses the degree of experiencing successful specimens of species of living beings. On a human level criterion of its truth is a “practical utility” which gives every individual and society as a whole a decent life.

Keywords: Tadeusz Garbowski, the evolution of knowledge, biological basis of cognition, adaptive concept of truth.

 

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Silvia Bonacchi

Affiliation: University of Warsaw, Department of Applied Linguistics, ul. Szturmowa 4, 02-678 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: s.bonacchi@uw.edu.pl

GESTALT AS A SPECIALIZED TERM: ITS CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

In the present paper the author attempts to reconstruct the process of terminologization of the expression Gestalt in the philosophical and psychological debates which laid the way for the emergence of the Berlin School of Gestalt Theory. Gestalt (English translations are: “form,” “shape,” “configuration,” “aspect”) is a German word, which is already documented in Old High German (gistalt) as meaning “appearance, way of appearing.” From the end of the 18th century onward, the word had a very interesting semantic enrichment and found uses in the arts and sciences, since it started to be used in specific domains (literature, philosophy, psychology) to designate an organic whole. In the first few decades of the 20th century,  it became a specialized term − a terminus technicus in philosophical and psychological thought − as Gestalt psychology and Gestalt theory emerged as a new scientific and philosophical orientation. The exact conceptual definitions of Gestalt, Gestalt qualities and Gestalt perception were heatedly discussed in the philosophical and psychological debates that raged in the first two decades of the 20th Century after the publication of the famous paper by Christian von Ehrenfels — On Gestalt Qualities (1890) — and it was developed in various psychological schools (the Berlin School, the Graz School) and philosophical orientations (phenomenology, neokantism), till the formulation in 1923 of the Gestalt laws by Max Wertheimer. In the concluding part of the paper, the author attempts to trace the development of  the Gestalt approach after the Second World War.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, terminologization, crisis of science, holism.

 

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Danilo Facca

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: dfacca@ifispan.waw.pl

THE ARISTOTELIAN NOTION OF FORM AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The papers analyses the Aristotelian concept of form (eidos, morphe) which is a basis of Aristotle’s philosophy. Aristotle’s critique of Plato’s conception of forms was for Aristotle a starting point for elaborating his own theory of forms. This theory provided Aristotle with a theoretical equipment applied in all the fields of scientific inquiry. So his concept of form proved to be all-pervasive. The article also deals with some recent debates, concerning the questions of sense and intellectual cognition, the problem of identity, the mind-body problem.

Keywords: Aristotle, form, correspondence theory of truth, idealism, realism

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

CATEGORIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GESTALT THEORY AND CLASSICAL 20TH—CENTURY PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In his paper the author reconstructs the categorial relations between Gestalt psychology and theory and classical 20th-century philosophical anthropology (Max Scheler, Helmuth Plessner). In the first part, entitled Inspirations, it is analysed how the views of a key 20th–century Gestalt theorist Wolfgang Köhler influenced Scheler, the author of The Human Place in the Cosmos. In part two, Parallels, the author investigates the categorial similarities between Plessner’s philosophical anthropology with its category of “eccentric position” and Gestalt theory.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, philosophical anthropology, intelligence, spirit, the whole, field, form, sensation, perception, eccentric position

 

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Anna Michalska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: michalskanna@gmail.com

GESTALT AND SCIENCE. KUHN’S MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC CHANGE IN THE LIGHT OF GESTALT THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Thomas Kuhn advances a controversial claim that the scientific change is a form of Gestalt switch. As I point out, he did it apparently without having a full understanding of what Gestalt theory was, and used the concept of Gestalt rather metaphorically. Interestingly, however, Kuhn’s model of scientific change as sketched in The Copernican Revolution and developed in his subsequent works satisfies the desiderata of Gestalt theory. In the paper, I demonstrate that considering the Kuhnian model through the lens of Gestalt theory helps uncover its full potential and overcome certain difficulties connected to it.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, Thomas Kuhn, scientific revolution, scientific change.

 

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Jagna Brudzińska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland;  University of Cologne, Germany.

Email: jagna.brudzinska@uni-koeln.de

TYPE AS THE DYNAMIC STRUCTURE OF EXPERIENCE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF GENETIC PHENOMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The article focuses on Husserl’s phenomenological philosophy as an intentionalgenetic theory of experience. I inquire into the elementary forms and principle of the organisation of subjective experiences and investigate the concepts of type and typizing apperception in the context of pre-predicative constitution. I attempt to show how far type, conceived as a concrete and acquired coherence of homogenous experiences, determines the process of interest-awakening even before higher predicative procedures, such as discursive and reflexive thinking, take place. Following such a path, phenomenology comes closer to the philosophy of life, as well as to the Gestalt theory.

Keywords: genetic phenomenology, intentionality, type, typizing apperception.

 

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Przemysław Parszutowicz

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland; Gdańsk University of Technology, ul. Traugutta 79, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland.

Email: pparszutowicz@ifispan.waw.pl

ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY OF SYMBOLIC FORMS AND GESTALT THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

The concept of “symbolic pregnancy” is in the opinion of many scholars one of the key concepts in Ernst Cassirer’s philosophy of symbolic forms. Without a proper understanding of its conceptual frame Cassirer’s philosophy lacks a consistent foundation. The concept “symbolic pregnancy” offers a mechanism of the distinction of symbolic forms. The newest investigations (also on unpublished or less known, neglected writings of the philosopher) has shown that the key-notion of “symbolic pregnancy” has its roots in Gestalt Theory (Gestalt Psychology). In this school Cassirer saw the most important example of a general tendency in scientific thought, according to which the primacy of the notion of “function” had to override the primacy of the notion of “substance”, the idea of “integrated whole” the notion of “primary elements”.

Keywords: Cassirer, symbolic pregnancy, symbolic form, Gestalt Theory.

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

HANS-JÖRG RHEINBERGER ON NATURE AND CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The author focuses on the leading themes of H-J. Rheinberger’s 2015 published book Natur und Kultur im Spiegel des Wissens (Nature and Culture in the Mirror of Knowledge). He mainly concentrates on the German science philosopher’s views regarding the status of contemporary natural sciences and the humanities, the fading of to-date boundaries between both fields, and especially the role the culture concept is beginning to play in today`s experimental biology.

Keywords: historical epistemology, nature, culture, natural sciences, humanities, hybrid disciplines, experimental systems, experimentation cultures.

 

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Sławomir Leciejewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szamarzewskiego 89c, 60-568 Poznan, Poland

Email: slaaw@amu.edu.pl

VISUALIZATION AND RECORDING TECHNIQUES IN NATURAL SCIENCES IN HANS-JÖRG RHEINBERGER VIEW

 

ABSTRACT

In my comment to fragments of Historical Epistemology, devoted to the problem of visualization and recording techniques in natural sciences, I refer to Peter Galison’s theses presented in his book Image and Logic: a Material Culture of Microphysics in order to analyse critically Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s claims in the context of modern experimental practice engaging computers. I answer for the question whether the theses included in the Historical Epistemology concerning visualization and recording are acceptable when they are confronted with the computer style of scientific research prevailing in experimental research since the 80-ties of the 20th century.

Keywords: historical epistemology, visualization, style of scientific research.

 

3/2015

Giorgio Derossi

Affiliation: Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 1, 34128 Trieste TS,  Italy

E-mail: serenacattaruzza@alice.it

 

THE PERCEPTUAL DIMENSION IN EXPERIMENTAL PHENOMENOLOGY AND IN SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

The author presents a possible important contribution of experimental phenomenology to the methodology of scientific research. Experimental phenomenology is a phenomenological approach developed recently from some epistemological implications of the inspired by the Gestalt theory investigations concerning perception. The paper is especially concentrated on investigations performed by the group which was being active at the Trieste University in the second half of the 20th century; the group was leading by Gaetano Kanizsa, a perception specialist. The here mentioned implications refer to the possibility of forming spatiotemporal conditions, which reveal reality beyond phenomena and which in the classical Husserl  phenomenology approach are recognized to be knowable only ideally. The author contests the idealistic mortgage of the classical phenomenology, and emphasizes the essentiality of some arguments which seems to legitimize the mentioned possibility of a new realism. The author quotes creative visualizations applying relevant Gedankenexperimenten, elaborated by Ernst Mach in his historical-critical researches of the evolution of modern mechanics. However, the author first of all presents the essential features of the visualization of the absolute reality of the space perceived in the phenomenon of incongruent correspondents, stated in last pre-critical Kant’s essay. Thus the theoretical-historical perspective is outlined in which a more essential role can be played by—together with the vision of ideal essences— the very vision of reality.

Keywords: perception, idealization, visualization, mental experiment, continuity-non-continuity, incongruent correspondents, reality. 

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: stanislaw.czerniak@outlook.com

 

ARNOLD GEHLEN’S PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AS A MODEL OF SOCIETY CRITIQUE

 

ABSTRACT

The author distinguishes three notions of philosophical anthropology and at the same time three developmental streams of this domain. He considers the relations linking philosophical anthropology with critical social philosophy. Next, he explicates the main assumptions of Arnold Gehlen’s philosophical anthropology, and searches for an answer to the following question: how those assumptions influence the categorical specificity of Gehlen’s critique of the postmodern society embraced in the notion of contemporary institutions crisis.  The author elaborates those analyses by referring to Gehlen’s work Die Seele im technischen Zeitalter and to the carried out there analyses of the so called new subjectivism. The article is concluded by critical investigations on some ideational inconsistencies of Gehlen’s philosophical position.

Keywords: philosophy of man, philosophical anthropology, flood of stimuli, instinct overcapacity, language, social institutions, action, new subjectivism.

 

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Rafał Michalski
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

E-mail: metasis@umk.pl

 

THE GENESIS OF LANGUAGE IN AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE.

THE POSITION OF ARNOLD GEHLEN AND GEORGE HERBERT MEAD

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the main assumptions of Arnold Gehlen’s conception of the origin of language, supplementing its shortcomings with some conclusions drawn from George Herbert Mead’s social behaviorism. The first two sections contain the description of the ontogeny of linguistic competence, with special reference to “embodied meaning,” the notion describing the fact that human language is deeply rooted in motor imagination. Employing the term, Gehlen tries to prove that any notions, even the most abstract ones, are crystallized through sensorimotor schemas, i.e. through bodily characteristics that enable the man to interact with his environment. The language has therefore a relieving function, because it compensates the inherent lack of adaptation to specific environmental conditions and chronic surplus of drives that are not channeled. The third section analyses the philosopher’s arguments for the thesis that language and discursive thinking create an inseparable unity. The reconstruction of Gehlen’s theory is summarized by a critical commentary to some of its elements together with an overview of several topics of Mead’s social behaviorism which can be seen as its corroboration and development.

Keywords: origin of language, social behaviorism, ontogeny, motor imagination, relief, communication.

 

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Zdzisława Piątek

Affiliation: Jagiellonian University, ul. Gołębia 24, 31–007 Kraków, Poland 

E-mail: zdzislawa.piatek33@gmail.com

 

ON THE BANALITY OF GOOD UNDERSTOOD AS THE GOOD OF LIVING BEINGS

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is about the good of living beings. The concept is analogous to Hannah Arendt’s banality of evil in that it is unconscious (unknowing) since the non-human living beings are not driven in their actions by conscious motivation. The “motivation” of realization of the good of its own is genetic information. The good of their own of living beings i.e., the ability to live within the measure of one’s own species is related to the drive of self–preservation and is a fundamental value since it is the basis of all the other goods. Its realization requires the subjects of life, just like the realization of moral good requires moral subjects. The thesis of this paper is that moral subjects and moral goods derive from the subjects of life.

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl

 

SUBJECTIVITY IN NEO-KANTIANISM

 

ABSTRACT

The paper analyses Neo-Kantianism views on cognitive subjectivity: constructions by Heinrich Rickert (valuing subject and epistemological subject), by Bruno Bauch (proper subject – principium), by Hermann Cohen (a logical substitution linking rules of thinking, methods and cognitive procedures) and Paul Natorp’s exclusion of subjectivity. The Neo-Kantianism conceptions of subjectivity are determined by the Neo-Kantianism metatheses: anti-psychologism, objectivism, and epistemological fundamentalism. It is demonstrated that Neo-Kantianism elaborated a foundation to philosophize without the category of subject, and initiated the metaphilosophical transformation to the linguistic paradigm. The basis of this change holds that only the objective subject is able to acquire objective knowledge.

Keywords: Neo-Kantianism, cognitive subject, the paradigm of consciousness, linguistic paradigm.

 

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Mariusz Mazurek
Affiliation: Lublin University of Technology Nadbystrzycka 38 D, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: mariusz.mazurek@pollub.pl

 

SCIENTIFIC THEORETICAL MODELS

 

ABSTRACT

I analysed three most interesting and extensive approaches to theoretical models: classical ones—proposed by Peter Achinstein and Michael Redhead, and the relatively rare analysed approach of Ryszard Wójcicki, belonging to a later phase of his research where he gave up applying the conceptual apparatus of logical semantics. I took into consideration the approaches to theoretical models in which they are qualified as models representing the reality. That is why I omitted Max Black’s and Mary Hesse’s concepts of such models, as those two concepts belong to the analogue model group if we consider the main function of the model of a given class as its classification criterion. My main focus was on theoretical models with representative functions as these very models and, in a broader context, the question of representation. To consider these problems philosophy of science concentrates its main attention.

Keywords: representation, theory, models, Peter Achinstein, Michael Redhead, Ryszard Wójcicki

 

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Mariusz Mazurek
Affiliation: Lublin University of Technology Nadbystrzycka 38 D, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: mariusz.mazurek@pollub.pl

 

THE DEFLATIONARY CONCEPTION OF REPRESENTATION IN MAURIZIO SUÁREZ’S CONCEPTION OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

I analysed Maurizio Suárez’s concept of representation due to the following reasons. Firstly the aforementioned concept declaratively (yet, as it turns out, only seemingly) breaks out of the mainstream, standard ways of approaching the relation of representation; those identify the representation with similarities of properties or with isomorphism. Secondly Suárez's investigations show how difficult is to disregard the standard presentation of the relation of representation based on commonsense intuitions, related to the naive epistemological realism and even being a version of such realism. Suárez's attempt indicates that the problem of representation, so broadly discussed nowadays, probably requires (in order to achieve new solutions) the introduction of an entirely new conceptual apparatus and thus approaching the problem of representation from an entirely new perspective.
Keywords: representation, deflationary conception, Maurizio Suárez.

 

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Andrzej Gecow
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: gecow@op.pl

 

A WAY TO THE MODEL OF STRUCTURE EVOLUTION

 

ABSTRACT

Three simple models are presented which describe preliminarily basic observations of living objects. The first one is a model of the improving process of object without structure. It prepares intuition on evolution from the perspective of information and purposeful information, entropy and probability. The evolving object is described as a vector of properties of several equally probable variants. This model gives a formal foundation of small change tendency, and the quantitative basis for a natural identity criterion which has a deep philosophical meaning. Further it becomes a part of a model with a structure which indicates target structural tendencies. The second model describes the record length of purposeful information by use of which we intuitively distinguish living objects from the inanimate world. Here the model without structure is applied to the same object again but to its other aspect. The third model develops the notion “degeneration” defined in the model without structure. The paper discusses the reservation and scope of permitted degeneration during the quantitative explosion of adaptive radiation and during competition.
Keywords: biological information, purposeful information, degeneration, competition, quantitative explosion, adaptive radiation.

 

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Radosław Sojak
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

E-mail: kedar@umk.pl

 

LET HER FLY HIGH. ON A DIVIDE BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

Sociology has not dominated social studies of science (SSN). The latter develops itself largely autonomously and independently of sociology. The article sketches possible reasons of that situation. Apart from historical and institutional causes it points out three main reasons of a theoretical nature. (1) The relative absence of the Mertonian tradition within SSN; (2) a general distrust within SSN towards the explanation based on interests, and (3) actor-network theory's critique of sociological tradition. It is claimed that the critique is misguided and underestimates both the cognitive and practical potential of sociology.
Keywords: sociology; sociology of scientific knowledge; social studies of science; actor-network theory

 

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Anna Michalska
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: michalskanna@gmail.com

 

SCIENCE AND RATIONALITY IN THE THEORY OF COMMUNICATIVE ACTION

 

ABSTRACT

The “classical” philosophy of science, basic tenets of which have been subjected to severe criticism over the years, conceives of science as the medium and the touchstone of rationality. Based on this assumption, the theory of science is the theory of rationality. Habermas’ theory of communicative action offers an interesting switch to this classical perspective. In his account, the notion of rationality is wider than that of science: rationality is irreducible to science constituting only one of three pillars of rationality. It also means that science cannot be reduced to an instrumental form of rationality.

This account of the relationship between science and rationality sheds a light on the most frequently formulated critical argument against Habermas’ theory, according to which the idea of communicative action is unrealistic. In my reply to that I argue that the theory of communicative action determine a set of empirical conditions that must be met for a communicative action to be possible. These conditions are demanding, but hardly unrealistic.
Keywords: science, rationality, theory of communicative action, empirical conditions of communicative action, transcendental conditions of communicative action.

 

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Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

E-mail: pbytniewski@tlen.pl

 

THREE MODELS OF THE DISCONTINUOUS PROCESS OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCES—BACHELARD, CANGUILHEM, FOUCAULT

 

ABSTRACT

The paper presents three models of the history of sciences, in which three different kinds of discontinuity of knowledge (epistemological, interdisciplinary, temporal) play the role of ordering the ways of understanding the historical process of sciences. Gaston Bachelard, Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault—the authors of these models—disposing of a historical material concerning natural sciences (Bachelard, Canguilhem) and the humanities (Foucault) attempt to settle the matter of the connection between the specificity of the historical process, in which those sciences are involved, and the epistemological qualifications of the knowledge being a product of this process. Each author, sharing with two others some initial, common assumptions, emphasizes differently, though, the role of the listed kinds of discontinuity in this process.

Keywords: history of sciences, discontinuity of knowledge, Gaston Bachelard, Georges Canguilhem, Michel Foucault.

 

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Zbysław Muszyński

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

E-mail: zmuszyn@bacon.umcs.lublin.pl

 

EXTENDED MIND, EXTENDED COGNITION, “EXTENDED SCIENCE”

 

ABSTRACT

The paper analyses three categories mentioned in the title: extended mind, extended cognition, extended science, and to reveal their interconnections. All the categories refer to the conception of extended mind, whereas the notion of extended science is a proposal of applying the conception of extended mind to analysing the subject of scientific research, results of the research and the very process of establishing scientific knowledge, as well as understanding science and its functioning.

Keywords: extended mind, extended cognition, the principle of quotas, scientific knowledge, Andy Clark, David Chalmers, Ronald N. Giere, Richard Menary. 

 

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Barbara Trybulec
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: barbara.trybulec@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

PHEOMENOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE – TWO METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF THE COGNITIVE SUBJECT.

A PERSPECTIVE OF COLLABORATION AND ITS PROBLEMS

 

ABSTRACT

The paper presents benefits and difficulties carried by the project of incorporating the method of phenomenology into cognitive science. I explain the consequences of naturalizing phenomenology and analyse relations between the two lines of reflection on cognition – phenomenology and cognitive science. I also present some difficulties associated with neurophenomenology introduced by Francisco Varela. Neurophenomenology grows out from four philosophical traditions founded on different or even incompatible assumptions on  the cognitive subject. The main task for this discipline is to determine a consistent set of assumptions and methods which could constitute a theoretical ground composed of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. In the paper I argue that naturalizing phenomenology is an illusion. The only hope for a joined reflection on cognition lies in researches which combine the method of phenomenological reduction with the neuroscientific method of picturing the activity of the brain. Revealing neural correlates of the first-person experiences awakens hope for development of science about first-person perspective which is based neither on introspection nor on folk psychology, but on phenomenological reduction, and which together with cognitive science constitute the new value in the reflection on cognition. 
Keywords: epistemic subject, phenomenological reduction, cognitive science, neurophenomenology, consciousness, phenomenology.

 

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Aleksandra Kołtun
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: aleksandra.koltun@gmail.com

 

“EXTENDED SCIENCE” – AGORAS, LABORATORIES, SOCIAL MACHINES

 

ABSTRACT

The transformations in the functioning of contemporary science are recognised more and more often in the categories of extension of its areas of inquiry, heterogeneity of the engaged actors, and crossing the disciplinary boundaries. Along with these changes there arise questions concerning where and how exactly scientific knowledge emerges as well as the problem of defining the criteria of sciencehood. The article aims to present selected conceptions from the area of Science and Technology Studies; such ones which focus their attention to diverse spaces (of material, organisational and/or cultural kinds) in which supposedly scientific knowledge emerges. Altogether, it seems that these are both the organisational mode and the specific spaces that can currently serve as a basis for discerning science from non-science.
Keywords: “extended science”, Mode 2 knowledge production, agora, anthropology of science, laboratories, actor-network theory, social machines.

 

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Małgorzata Koronkiewicz
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: malgorzata.koronkiewicz@gmail.com

 

CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE’S REALISM AND RICHARD RORTY’S ANTIREALISM

 

ABSTRACT

The paper analyses some elements of realism in Charles Sanders Peirce’s traditional pragmatism and of antirealism in Richard Rorty’s neopragmatism. Realism and antirealism are discussed here mainly in their relations to the problems of meaning, objectivity and truth.
Keywords: Charles Sanders Peirce, Richard Rorty, realism, antirealism, pragmatism, neopragmatism.

 

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Marek Łagosz
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3/20, 51-149 Wrocław, Poland

E-mail: lagosz@o2.pl

NATURAL HISTORY AND SOCIAL HISTORY. A COMPARATIVE ESSAY

 

ABSTRACT

In this paper I undertake the question of differences between natural and social history. I consider five detailed issues: the pace of qualitative changes and homogeneity of time, the arrow of time, the end of history, the totality of history, and the difference between historic nature and temporality.  I emphasize that the differences between natural and social history are not ontologically essential.
Keywords: natural history, social history, qualitative change, time, arrow of time, end of history, totality of history, historic nature, temporality.

 

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Janusz Uchmański
Affiliation: Institute of Ecology and Bioethics, Department of Christian Philosophy, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01–938 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: j.uchmanski@uksw.edu.pl

 

MATHEMATICAL NATURE OF BIOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In natural sciences mathematics is used as a very useful language. Great achievements of physics are related to the application of mathematical methods. Physics has also great influence on the development of mathematics. The degree of the application of mathematics in biology is very small. Biology has no influence on mathematics. Mathematical methods used to describe physical systems are also used to describe biological systems. It can be a mistake. May be biology needs entirely new mathematical methods appropriate for describing the complexity of biological systems?
Keywords: mathematics, biology, mathematical nature of biology.

 

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Anna Lemańska
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01–938 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: a.lemanska@uksw.edu.pl

EVOLUTION AS THE REALIZATION OF A PROJECT?

 

ABSTRACT

In scientific theories of biological evolution, evolution is presented as an undirected process in which chance plays an important role because the methods of the sciences are not able to detect any externally imposed order or project. This does not mean, however, that such a project does not exist. In this article I try to show that the philosophical interpretations of evolution allow for the possibility that evolution was the implementation of the project.
Keywords: evolution, purpose, chance, project.

 

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Krzysztof Chodasewicz
Affiliation: Academy of Physiotherapy, Tadeusza Kościuszki 4, 50-038 Wrocław, Poland

E-mail: kchodasewicz@o2.pl

 

J.B.S. HALDANE AND FORMULATIONS OF CONDITIONS OF SELECTION

 

ABSTRACT

I analyze J.B.S. Haldane's view on defining necessary conditions for (evolution by) natural selection. This issue has been recently broadly discussed on the borderline between philosophy of biology and theoretical biology. I put forward a hypothesis that Haldane (like many population geneticists) did not try to formulate a summary of conditions of natural selection applicable to all cases of selection, but he built instead relevant differential mathematical models of natural selection.
Keywords: J.B.S. Haldane, natural selection, conditions for natural selection, philosophy and history of biology.

 

–––––––––

 

Andrzej Gecow
Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa

E-mail: gecow@op.pl

 

FROM HALDANE’S 20TH CENTURY POPULATION GENETICS TO THE TODAY JABLONKA BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND HEREDITY CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

Revolution is just going on. Only correct population genetics stops to be the “only correct”. The information just takes the place of genes. Less serious psychological aspects play here role of main factors. Haldane and Jablonka are symbols of consecutive revolution in the biology.
Keywords: recapitulation, epigenetics, biological information, memetics, complex networks.

2/2014

Zdzisława Piątek  

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków, Poland

E-mail: zdzislawa.piatek33@gmail.com

 

PECULIARITY OF CULTURAL ADAPTATION. THE INSTANCE OF FUNCTIONING OF GENDER STEREOTYPES

 

ABSTRACT

The peculiar character of cultural adaptation in relation to biological adaptation consists in the fact that when the former adaptation has arisen the survival of the human species depends not only on the transmission of genes, but also on memes, i.e. the cultural replicators and their success in the anthroposphere. This paper claims that the adaptative value of cultural reality is ambivalent, because culture contains both true and false beliefs (memes) about both the dimensions of human environment. This is caused by the fact that the mechanisms of cultural adaptation on the level of memes are to some extent independent from the adaptation on the level of genes and may have a negative effect on that level. The way in which memes may influence genes has been presented through the relationship between metaphysics and gender stereotypes.

Keywords: cultural adaptation, biological adaptation, anthroposphere, cultural replicators (mem).

 

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Robert Piłat

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/2, 01–938 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: r.pilat@uksw.edu.pl

 

PHILOSOPHY AND THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

 

ABSTRACT

In this report, devoted to the relation between the humanities (especially philosophy) and technical high schools, I analyse the paradox emerging when four claims are accepted: (1) technical high schools demonstrate more and more clearly university aspirations and get properties of the university; (2) the humanities and social sciences are an inherent part of the classical university; (3) in all the world a deep crisis of the classical university occurs; also the social legitimization of the life disinterestingly concentrated on knowledge disappears; (4) the technical mentality and the technical civilization are responsible for this crisis. It is easily seen that the last claim is contradictory to the first one. I try to indicate the sources of this paradox by demonstrating the falsity of claim (4). In conclusion, I maintain a real nihilistic tendency present in the attitude of modern societies toward knowledge.

Keywords: technical high school, university, philosophy, technical civilization.

 

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Maciej Soin

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: msoin@poczta.onet.pl

 

ON POSIBLE WAYS OF TEACHING OF PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The paper attempts to respond to the postulates included in the National Frameworks of Qualifications. Those require syllabuses in higher education be shaped  by  “abilities of autonomous and responsible actions”. The Author considers the usefulness of various fields of teaching of philosophy for this goal, and he concludes that the greatest prospects for its attaining lie in the teaching of critical thinking in the version based on Wittgenstein’s philosophical investigations. The syllabuses of such teaching are not being reduced to the logical analysis of argumentation, but embrace among others problems of polysemousness of concepts and the verbal disputes emerging when differences between various ways of language use are neglected.  The teaching of critical thinking at an advanced level can be engaged in the problem of truth:  the diversification of criteria of truthfulness, abilities of differentiating empirical and grammatical statements, and the comparative role of samples in research practices in various domains of science.

Keywords: teaching of philosophy, critical thinking, Wittgenstein.

 

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Zbigniew Król

Affiliation: Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: zbigkrol@wp.pl

 

PHILOSOPHY AND EXACT SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

In the paper the non-separable union of philosophy and science is demonstrated; it is argued that philosophy is a necessary element of scientific practice. The author presents some arguments for the inalienable presence and need of philosophy in science whose aspirations – as he maintains – are not being reduced to the realization of utilitarian needs. The necessity of philosophy originates from the human pursuit of the understanding of reality; this understanding also is the main task of science.

Keywords: science, philosophy, utilitarian needs, the understanding of reality.

 

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Grzegorz Pyszczek

The Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education, Szczęśliwicka 40, 02-353 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: pyszczek@poczta.onet.pl

 

THE PHILOSOPHER IN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITIES

 

ABSTRACT

The paper concerns the problems of the teaching of philosophy in technical universities. Stereotypes and prejudices concerning technology (technophilia, technophobia) is the first barrier in this enterprise. The second barrier is caused by the lack of philosophy of technology in philosophical courses, and the third one is brought on by the absence of meta-technical reflection in technical subjects.

Keywords: technical university, teaching of philosophy, technophilia, technophobia, philosophy of technology.

 

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Marek Maciejczak

Affiliation: Warsaw University of Technology, Plac Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: marmaciejczak@poczta.onet.pl

 

KNOWING HIMSELF AS A CONDITION OF SUBJECT’S IDENTITY

 

ABSTRACT

Sociological investigations show the ever changing meaning of concepts of individual, identity, obligation towards self and others, and also culture, university, religion.   In consumerist societies these concepts become fluid. Not only the project of a life style becomes market-oriented, but also that of self-fulfilment. The personal identity requires attention, goals, values, a language. Personal identity requires reflection. Kant, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Wojtyła and Taylor provide guidelines as how to examine this kind of reflection.  

Keywords: reflection, self-determination, a personal identity, consumerist society, conscious, art, university, religion. 

 

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Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: pbytniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCES, THAT IS, EPISTEMOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES OF HISTORY OF SCIENTIFIC COGNITION

 

ABSTRACT

The paper takes as the basis of the considerations the phenomenon of the self-isolation of intellectual cultures of philosophy of science; those cultures are closed in individual traditions, consider pre-restricted issues, ignore achievements of other cultures and research environments. This fact cannot be satisfactorily explained by linguistic differences and separate communicative channels used by social groups of scientists. The paper presents and confronts with each other, in a synoptic system, two traditions: Anglo-Saxon philosophy of science and French philosophy of sciences. Two essential differences between them are emphasized. The first one is the difference between the pluralistic and disciplinary grasps of science in philosophy of sciences and the monism of philosophy of science in treating such problems as rationality of science(s), roles of particular scientific fields in forming philosophical models of the science(s) change; the significance of history of science(s) for epistemological solutions, the grasp of the hierarchy of cognitive values, conceiving the object of history of science(s). The second difference lies in the distinctness of the relation between philosophy and history of science(s) assumed by philosophy of science and philosophy of sciences. 

Keywords: the Anglo-Saxon philosophy of science, French philosophy of science, history of sciences, Bachelard, Canguilhem, Foucault, rationality of science, epistemological non-continuity, archeology of knowledge.

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: czerniak.stanislaw@wp.pl

 

GERNOT BÖHME’S PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNICS

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the main threads of Gernot Böhme’s philosophy of technology. In his writings on the subject in the volume Invasive Technification: Critical Essays in the Philosophy of Technology (2008) Böhme abandons his earlier “finalisation of science” theory (which the author expounds in detail in the first part of the article) and situates philosophy of technology between philosophical anthropology and social philosophy. In this context, he reflects on the effects of technification for the identity of contemporary humans and changing social integration models (the social role of IT networks and technostructures). Böhme’s position is par excellence critical. Referring to the philosophical traditions of the Frankfurt School, he argues against the social philosophy of Jürgen Habermas and asks about the criteria which determine the “rationality” of technology. Böhme also reviews the cultural sources of resistance to “invasive technification”, not only in Western, but also in Far Eastern cultures. Finally, he discusses those anthropological horizons of technological progress which he considers to be ethically neutral and capable of opening new areas of self-knowledge and expression to humankind. The author closes his paper with a set of questions which in his opinion point to some still open issues in Böhme’s philosophy of technology.

Keywords: philosophy of science models, philosophy of technology, technification, philosophical anthropology, critical theory, rationality of technology, cultural brakes on technification, dialectic of technification.

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl

 

SUBJECTIVITY BY KANT

 

ABSTRACT

The paper reconstructs Kant’s cognitive subjectivity (transcendental as well as empirical one) by tracing both the text of the Critique of Pure Reason and some important relevant analyses conducted by Kantians within recent thirty years. The aim of the reconstruction is to consider how and if at all the concept of Kant’s subject may be used in today’s investigations on cognition. The non-eliminable multiplicity of interpretations of each important aspect of this subjectivity is demonstrated. Some doubtful properties of Kant’s construction of subjectivity are revealed; they call into question the applicability of this construction to now formed apprehensions of cognition.

Keywords: Kant’s subjectivity, cognition, John Niemeyer Findlay, David Carr, Siyaves Azeri, Andrew Brook.

 

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Barbara Trybulec

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: barbara.trybulec@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

MIND: EMBEDDED OR EXTENDED? THE TENSION IN THE THEORY OF THE SITUATED MIND

 

ABSTRACT

The situated mind is a new stream in the philosophy of mind. By some, it is perceived as a revolution in the field, or even as a paradigm change. Philosophers working on this new perspective try to create a unified and fruitful interdisciplinary project, aimed to shed a new light on problems of cognition. This task, if possible, is not easy. The Situated Mind is composed of at least three notions that could hardly be thought to present a unified picture of the mind: Embodied Mind, Extended Mind and Embedded Mind. These notions indicate a tension within the project that weakens its integrity. In the paper, I will investigate how strong this tension is, and, specifically, whether the various approaches to Situated Mind are really competitive, or maybe there is a hope for a unified new picture of the mind. I will argue that such a picture cannot be created by combining this three ideas, and will show that one of them is the most useful and fruitful description of the mind.

Keywords: situated mind, embedded mind, embodied mind, cognitive processes.

 

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Ignacy Szczeniowski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: ignacy.szczeniowski@gmail.com

 

NONCONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE AND KAZIMIERZ TWARDOWSKI’S POSTULATE OF THE CLARITY OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL STYLE

 

ABSTRACT

The article offers a few remarks on Kazimierz Twardowski’s thesis about the clarity of the philosophical style. The issue is discussed in the context of the problem of nonconceptual thinking and non-propositional knowledge. A short history of the polemic in the Lvov-Warsaw School serves as an introduction to further methodological and epistemological considerations.

The main subject of the comment is the work entitled About the Clear and Unclear Philosophical Style by the Polish philosopher. Twardowski’s article remains pertinent to the metaphilosophical discussion concerning the status of philosophical language and—which is overlooked in most studies—to the debate concerning conceptualization and communication at the intersection of epistemology and philosophy of mind and language. The polemic with Twardowski’s thesis that unclear style of philosophical works is indicative of the ambiguity of philosophical thinking, is presented in the three stages. I discuss Twardowski’s thesis that we think with words, and two theses by David Einhorn: that an object which cannot be grasped by concepts, cannot be known at all, and that the only access to thought we have is by means of words.

Keywords: knowledge, concepts, Kazimierz Twardowski, clarity, know how.

 

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Anna Michalska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: michalskanna@gmail.com

 

PRAGMATISM AND THE PROBLEM OF CHANGE IN THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEME IN THE LIGHT OF THE SENSORIMOTOR CONCEPTION OF EXPERIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

In the article, I propose a thesis that pragmatism offers a way out of the performative conflict inherent in the quest for the laws of change in conceptual frameworks, i.e. the conflict between the explicit notion of change and the implicit notion of continuity.

To this end, I interpret two main theses of pragmatism—the strict relationship between theory and action and between language and conditions of its use—in the light of the sensorimotor conception of experience. This conception—introduced by Jean Piaget and now advanced within cognitive neuroscience—imposes certain constraints on the way in which both theses might be construed, thus eliminating all one-sided versions of pragmatism. The conflict between continuity and change might be overcome in that it is not an object construed as an item of a certain kind, but a pattern of action is what constitutes the proper reference of thoughts and concepts. The change in the pattern or scheme of action is a resultant upon a series of adaptations subordinated to the mechanism of executive control, which encompasses the ability of planning and reflecting upon the incomes of one’s own and others’ actions.

Keywords: conceptual framework, pragmatism, sensorimotor conception of experience, rational development.

 

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Paweł Zeidler

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: zeidlerp@amu.edu.pl

 

ABOUT THE ROLE OF EMPIRICALLY-GROUNDED METAPHORS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAMMES

 

ABSTRACT

Along with the formulation by Max Black the interactive theory of metaphor, the philosophers of science began to analyze the role of metaphors in scientific cognition. It has been shown that metaphors can play different functions in all stages of the creation of scientific knowledge. In this paper I focus on the analysis of the role of metaphors in the account of empirical data and their impact on the constitution of scientific research programmes. I present views on this issue formulated ​​by Max Black, Mary Hesse, Richard Boyd, Thomas Kuhn, Daniela Bailer-Jones, and especially by John Styles, who analyzed in detail the role that empirically-grounded metaphors play in science. In the last paragraph of the paper, I consider the impact of metaphors on the constitution of the research programme of Bohr's atomic structure in the context of the Imre Lakatos’s methodology of scientific research programmes.

Keywords: interactive theory of metaphor, empirically-grounded metaphor, scientific research programme.

 

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Mariusz Mazurek

Affiliation: Lublin University of Technology Nadbystrzycka 38 D, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

E-mail: mariusz.mazurek@pollub.pl

 

SCIENTIFIC MODELS IN RONALD GIERE’S CONCEPTION OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper reconstructs and analyzed critically Ronald N. Giere’s view on scientific models situated within his model conception of science. It is demonstrated that Giere’s conception of science is too poor: it is not capable of determining certain properties of models postulated in it. First of all, it does not present clearly their status of non-linguistic, abstract entities, nor the 4-ary relation of representation. 

Keywords: representation, theory, models, relation of similarity, Ronald Giere’s account of scientific models.

 

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Marek Szydłowski

Affiliation: Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland

E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl

 

ONTOLOGICAL AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE COSMOLOGICAL MODEL

 

ABSTRACT

The standard cosmological model plays a crucial role in the research practice of modern cosmology. We examine ontological and epistemological aspects of this model, and its roles in the research practice of cosmology. We have found that there is not one distinguished ontology of the cosmological model. We point out different ontologies fitting it. The epistemological significance of the notion of cosmological model is also investigated, and complex epistemological roles of this notion are determined. We suggest that that the model is not an object belonging to one ontology, but it is a mixture of elements belonging to different ontological categories.

Keywords: ontology and epistemology of cosmological model, methodology of cosmology.

 

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Marek Łagosz

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3/20, 51-149 Wrocław, Poland

E-mail: lagosz@o2.pl

 

THE UNIVERSE: INFINITY AND TIME

 

ABSTRACT

The considerations presented in this paper elaborate and complete some threads examined in my published book Realność czasu [The Reality of Time]. I extend here the earlier sketched inifinistic (multi-world) and dynamic image of real being. I propose a model “of circular causality”, I argue for an asymmetric version of causal theory of time, and I present an ontological interpretation of Bolzano-Dedekind definition of infinite set.

Keywords: time, real being, circular causality, causal theory of time, Bolzano-Dedekind’s definition of finite set, infinity of the universe.

 

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Jarosław Mrozek

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism, University of Gdańsk, Bażynskiego 4, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland

E-mail: filjam@univ.gda.pl

 

MATHEMATICS IN THE LIGHT OF THE STRONG PROGRAMME OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

The sociology of science propagates the thesis about the social nature of all knowledge, however, Karl Mannheim, the most eminent representative of this way of thinking, tends to treat mathematics and logic differently. Mannheim considered mathematics and logic as disciplines of knowledge which are not amenable to social determination. The representatives of the Strong Programme of the sociology of knowledge raise once again the problem of the status of mathematics and logic. They aim to show that these sciences can be also reasonably analysed by means of sociological tools. In their considerations they refer to the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Imre Lakatos. They are convinced that Wittgenstein’s Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics and Lakatos’s Proofs and Refutations opened a way to a sociological approach to mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics, sociology, Strong Programme, status of mathematics.

 

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Andrzej Wilk

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: awilk@ifispan.waw.pl

 

CHAOS AND INCOMPUTABILITY

 

ABSTRACT

The paper is devoted to the problem of the implementation of incomputability in the real world. It considers the following basic question: has logical noneffectiveness its realization in the physical world or, has non-algorithmicity a physical/material medium? The conclusion is: the algorithmically interpreted theory of deterministic chaos corresponds with the non-random/decidable part of mathematics. It should be, however, taken into account that it is always the nonalgorithmicity, randomness of models in which a description is formed.

Keywords: theory of computability, theory of chaos, Church’s thesis.

 

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Maciej Sopek

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warszawa, Poland

E-mail: riven213@gmail.com

 

THE SEMANTIC WEB—INTRODUCING MEANING TO THE INTERNET

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present article is to explore selected philosophical aspects of the World Wide Web, with particular emphasis on the Semantic Web technologies. This is motivated by the conviction that the Web as such provides grounds for philosophical investigation, and at the same time remains a subject that is rarely approached from philosophical perspective. The article contains a brief sketch of the development of the World Wide Web and emphasizes the conceptual novelty that the Semantic technologies introduce to the area; as well as examples of their practical application. Some of the notions approached in the article include meaning, reference and the question of the ontological status of objects being part of the Web.

Keywords: internet, web, semantics, designators, meaning, reference

 

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Andrzej Gecow

Affiliation: Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Dziekanow Lesny, 05-092 Łomianki, Poland

E-mail: gecow@op.pl

 

HEREDITARY INFORMATION AND THEIR CHANNELS

 

ABSTRACT

The presented second part of the Draft of the Deductive Theory of Life cannot be understood without studying the first one, where the basic notions used here are defined. Inheritance is a transfer of collected purposeful information to descendant. The description of propagation of purposeful information is here broadened by the cycle of the object and environment, also the spatial and functional heterogeneity of environment. The description of hereditary channels needs to call the model of covering as structural tendency. The description of the theoretical base of this model will be a theme of next parts of the Draft; here only intuitive base is shown. Inheritance concerns a part of changeability controlled by purposeful information, but covering concern random part of changeability. The place in the Draft and mutual references of both these models are discussed. The model of inheritance proposed here is closely connected to works of Eva Jablonka. It offers more clear and formal theoretical bases for her results.

Keywords: deductive theory of life, inheritance, environment, object, hereditary channels.

 

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Krzysztof Chodasewicz

Affiliation: Academy of Physiotherapy, Tadeusza Kościuszki 4, 50-038 Wrocław, Poland

E-mail: kchodasewicz@o2.pl

 

EMERGENCE IN BIOLOGY – REDUCTIONISM VERSUS ORGANICISM

 

ABSTRACT

The article offers a comparative analysis of the views on biological emergence by two philosophizing scientists – Bernd-Olaf Küppers and Pier Luigi Luisi. Both authors declare different philosophical positions: the former claims to be a reductionist, while the latter considers himself an organicist. Both scientists differ also in their opinions about whether it is possible to define life. Küppers is convinced that life cannot be defined, unless it possesses some emergent properties, while Luisi claims that life exhibits emergent features and can be satisfactorily defined. The confrontation of opinions of both authors leads to unexpected conclusions.

Keywords: emergence in biology, organicism, mechanicism, downward causation, defining life.