Author Archives: Małgorzata Czarnocka

Table of Contens 9/2021 part 1

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies

Vol. 9, part 1, 2021

 

 

Editorial

About the ninth volume of the journal PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies​ 

 

KNOWLEDGE IN THE ACADEMY AND OUTSIDE THE ACADEMY
edited by Marek Hetmański

 

Marek Hetmański – Introduction to the Thematic Block "Knowledge in the Academy and Outside the Academy" 

Janusz Grygieńć – Should We Fear Epistemic Dependence (and How Much)? 

Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik – Academic Industrial Science and its Norms PRICE 

Rafał Paweł Wierzchosławski – Protestant Science, Elective Modernism and Expert Knowledge in the Context of the Functioning of Science Outside the Academy 

Marcelina Zuber – Scientists to the Challenges of Modernity: the “Communism” of the Scientists’ Ethos as an Ethical Norm or the Regulating Principle of Research Practice 

Andrzej Stawicki – Creation of Knowledge on the Border of Science and Practice in a Systemic Perspective. The Case of Polish Humanities and Social Sciences 

Katarzyna Krzemińska – The Social Creation of Demarcation Criteria Between Science and Pseudoscience 

Józef Dębowski – On Classical Truth, Post-Truth and the Principle of Sourceness 

Małgorzata Czarnocka – Natura post-prawd The Nature of Post-Truth

Tomasz Walczyk – The Issue of Extended Knowledge from the Perspective of Extended Epistemology and Telepistemology 

Marcin Trybulec – Towards the Epistemology of Cognitive Artifacts 

Maciej Wodziński, Marek Hetmański – Expert Knowledge and Expertise by Experience in the Domain of Autism 

 

Studies and Dissertations

Jerzy Gołosz – The Pythagoreans, or an Apologia for Metaphysics 

Marek Maciejczak – The Context of Habitatuality in the Husserlian Theory of Consciousness 

Krzysztof Sołoducha – Some Remarks on Naturalistic Attemps to Rationalise Hermeneutics 

Damian Winczewski – Dialectical Materialism after „Diamant”: Scientific Dialectical Ontology and Natural Materialism 

Alina Bernadetta Jagiełłowicz – Engaged Philosophy of Health Protection 

 

Polish Thinkers about Science

Mariusz Mazurek – Czesław Białobrzeski — Physicist and Philosopher 

 

Polemics and Discussions

Marek Błaszczyk – Towards the Problem of the Sense of Human Existence 

Sebastian Kozera – Superintelligent Beings as a Source of an Existential Threat According to Nick Bostrom 

9/2021 (1)

Janusz Grygieńć 

Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland. 

Email: jgrygienc@umk.pl 

 

SHOULD WE FEAR EPISTEMIC DEPENDENCE (AND HOW MUCH)?

 

ABSTRACT 

In recent years, interest in the problem of expert knowledge has intensified among social scientists. One of the topics more frequently addressed in this context is the relationship between experts and laypeople. This paper examines this issue from the perspective of the concept of epistemic dependence formulated by John Hardwig. I argue that this concept poses a severe challenge to the vision of scientific inquiry dominant in the scientific literature and to the democratic idea of politics. I examine three strategies encountered in the literature for responding to this challenge: individualist, institutional, and epistocratic. Alvin Goldman advocates the first one, as he presents strategies at the disposal of a layman facing two conflicting expert opinions. The second is the belief in the scientific community’s potential to resolve all controversies and protect non-specialists from confronting them. The third is to eliminate epistemic dependence by including only those with sufficient practical experience in expert discussions. In the end, I conclude that the problem of epistemic dependence has no suitable solution. We should place our hopes only with strategies for circumventing it rather than confronting it. 

Keywords: epistemic dependence, experts, expertise, democracy, social epistemology. 

 

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Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik 

John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

Email: alekka@kul.pl 

 

ACADEMIC INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND ITS NORMS PRICE

 

ABSTRACT 

Twenty five years ago John Ziman formulated the thesis that academic science and industrial science merge into one system of post-academic and at the same time post-industrial science, in which the Mertonian norms of academic science expressed by the acronym CUDOS (communism, universalism, disinterestedness, organized scepticism) give way to the norms of industrial science expressed by the acronym PLACE (proprietary, local, authoritarian, commissioned, expert). In this article, I defend the thesis that this system has evolved into a system of academic industrial science, the norms of which can be expressed with the acronym PRICE: patron relevant, innovative, competitive, econometrical. Thus, reforming academic science is also its re-norming in terms of both ethics and the organization of research. The ethics of scientific research is transformed into the ethics of knowledge production. Scientific institutions are seen as producers of knowledge which is an “epistemic commodity.” A particular of knowledge is needed when it satisfies the needs of “consumers.” Scientists are then „elements” of the knowledge production process, and the process itself is subject to market calculations. This does not undermine the epistemic value of a given research project and its results, but it leads to controversial consequences, including fragmentation and aspectualization of knowledge, linking research directions with the interests of social powers, and ignoring transformative criticism. As a result, sometimes what was treated in the Mertonian science as a threat or an offense against the ethos of science turns out to be the rational behavior of an entrepreneur operating on the market of epistemic goods and services. Academic industrial science is also unable to fulfil non-instrumental roles in society (shaping worldviews, supporting social rationality, providing independent experts) that academic science performed. Attempts to prevent these problems or threats will be doomed to failure in advance, because countermeasures are based on a different understanding of knowledge itself. 

Keywords: academic science, industrial science, academic industrial science, research ethics, knowledge production ethics, knowledge as an epistemic commodity, non-instrumental roles of science. 

 

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Rafał Paweł Wierzchosławski 

Liberal Arts and Sciences, Collegium Historicum, Poznań, Poland. 

Email: rafalpawelwie@gmail.com

 

PROTESTANT SCIENCE, ELECTIVE MODERNISM AND EXPERT KNOWLEDGE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FUNCTIONING OF SCIENCE OUTSIDE THE ACADEMY 

 

ABSTRACT 

In this article, I reflect on recent discussions of the methodological status of scientific knowledge within and outside the Academy. I draw attention to the problem of declining public trust in science (risk and fear society) and the phenomenon of post-truth. In the context of these issues, I present three positions whose authors define the relationship between official academic science in relation to other forms of knowledge (lay people) and forms of knowledge use outside the Academy (politics). The first position termed “elective modernism” was formulated by Harry Collins and Robert Evans in the context of discussions of the third wave of science disputes. Elective modernism defines the way in which policy decisions are made on the recommendations of scholars who have a methodological self-awareness of the possibilities and limitations of scientific knowledge. The second position is Steve Fuller's proposal of protestant science as a form of science in the context of posttruth conditions. In this view, knowledge can be produced by anyone, but it must meet certain specified scientific criteria. The third position is the view of expert knowledge proposed by Mark R. Brown, as a representation of various worldview or cultural options, whose representatives commission experts to make appropriate recommendations for certain political decisions. 

Key words: Protestant science, academic rent, post-truth condition, customized science, third wave of science studies, expert knowledge, social conditions of science, politics of science, representation, Steve Fuller, Harry Collins, Robert Evans, Mark R. Brown, risk society, fear society. 

 

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Marcelina Zuber 

Institute of Sociology, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3, 51–149 Wrocław, Poland.

Email: marcelina.zuber@uwr.edu.pl 

 

SCIENTISTS TO THE CHALLENGES OF MODERNITY: THE “COMMUNISM” OF THE SCIENTISTS’ ETHOS AS AN ETHICAL NORM OR THE REGULATING PRINCIPLE OF RESEARCH PRACTICE 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article attempts to establish the role that may be presently played by Merton’s concept of scientific ethos, and especially his norm of “communism” in describing and explaining the mechanisms of modern science’s functioning. Merton introduces scientific ethos’ norms as ethical and technological, and therefore truly regulating the practice of research. In this context especially important is the role played by the norm of “communism,” which orders to share research results with all research community and society. This article presents two visions of research community’s functioning alternative to Merton’s concetion: Pierre Bourdieu’s conception of” le champ scientifique,” and Bruno Latour’s and Steve Woolgar’s conceptions of conversion of capital within the “cycle of credibility.” None of these concepts feature research practice as organised by “communism.” The consideration of roles of historically evolving models of practicing science (amateur, academic, professional, post-academic) is crucial for a precise description of the rules of functioning in science. Abiding by the rule of communism is possible only in the academic model, whereas modern researchers increasingly often function either within corporations (professional model), or remain in the academia while operating on private funds (post-academic model). Following the rule of communism, even as a moral guideline, is not possible in these circumstances. 

Keywords: scientists’ ethos, Robert Merton, Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar, academic, post-academic model of practicising science, John Ziman, Sheldon Krimsky. 

 

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Andrzej Stawicki 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: andrzej.stawicki@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE ON THE BORDER OF SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN A SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVE. THE CASE OF POLISH HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article presents conclusions from research on changes in the practice of creating knowledge in the social sciences and humanities, resulting from research cooperation with the socio-economic environment. The research focused primarily on the impact of such collaboration on the advancement of scientific knowledge in these fields. The theoretical framework adopted in the analysis is the concept of science as an autopoietic, social system, derived from the sociological theory of Niklas Luhmann (presented in his Die Wissenschaft der Gesellschaft, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1990). 

According to the results of the study, the cooperation of the science system with other social subsystems in its environment significantly affects both the practices of creating knowledge and its ultimate character. Such knowledge, under certain conditions, can become an element of scientific communication, but there are some limitations that are associated with differentthat rationalities of cooperating subsystems. An important barrier is the subordination of the research process to the needs of external systems, which, combined with the high selectivity of the science system, means that knowledge generated in cooperation, mainly of an operational nature, is not accepted by the science system. However, there is a great potential for this type of practice because the knowledge thus generated, after an appropriate translation into the system code of science and embedding it in its wider context, can significantly enrich it, among others, with otherwise inaccessible empirical data and different points of view that may become a basis for further scientific research. Research shows that for many representatives of the social sciences and humanities this potential is effectively used. 

Keywords: Social sciences and humanities, Mode 2 of knowledge production, autopoiesis of the science system, Social Systems Theory, cooperation between science and its environment. 

 

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Katarzyna Krzemińska 

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Kraków, Poland.

Email: katarzyna.krzeminska@student.uj.edu.pl 

 

THE SOCIAL CREATION OF DEMARCATION CRITERIA BETWEEN SCIENCE AND PSEUDOSCIENCE 

 

ABSTRACT 

In the paper I address the problem of consolidation of the borders of the world of science by scientific institutions—in this case, Polish scientific societies of various fields. Basing on the analysis of the statutes of selected societies, I formulate a list of research questions that concern the role of scientific societies in distinguishing be tween what is considered scientific and what is not. These questions can be used in a more in-depth research. I adopt a constructivist perspective, focus on the ways in which science is produced and separated from pseudoscience, and do not address the (in)accuracy of claims rejected by the scientific world. 

Keywords: sociology of science, scientific societies, pseudoscience, science, social institutions. 

 

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Józef Dębowski 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Kurta Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn, Poland.

Email: jozdeb@poczta.onet.pl 

 

ON CLASSICAL TRUTH, POST-TRUTH AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SOURCENESS 

 

ABSTRACT 

In this paper, I present a short 10-point characteristics of the classical conception of truth. Subsequently I point to the importance and comprehensive usefulness of this truth, among others, to the possibility of applying it in some virtual environments, e.g., in those which include virtual objects of types A and C. I also emphasize that—independently of views of promotors and creators of the “post-truth era” (e.g. the will of politicians, propagandists and the authors of conspiracy theories)—truth as it is grasped in the classical theory is in principle non-withdrawable from social discourse, including its philosophical and scientific fields. 

Keywords: truth, post-truth, reality, virtual reality, thought, cognition, knowledge, realism, objectivism, correspondence theory of truth, strong correspondence, weak correspondence. 

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka 

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: mczarnocka@ifispan.edu.pl 

 

THE NATURE OF POST-TRUTH

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper demonstrates a close relationship of post-truth to pragmatic truth as William James put it. As such post-truth cannot be treated—as it is commonly perceived—as a falsehood in the sense given it by the classical idea of truth. Post-truth is not a classical cognitive value, but a means of action, more concretely, a means of realizing interests of its operator by using the method of cognitive camouflage; it means that post-truth is disguised as a truth in its classical (correspondence) sense, but it only seemingly communicates in the objective way (i.e., impartially and nonsubjectively) real facts. In my view, the present eruption of post-truths is an effect of the spreading of the pragmatic system of values and infecting by it the whole public sphere and, in consequence, also individual principles and norms of action. 

Keywords: post-truth, pragmatic truth, William James, particular interest. 

 

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Tomasz Walczyk 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: tomasz.walczyk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

 

THE ISSUE OF EXTENDED KNOWLEDGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXTENDED EPISTEMOLOGY AND TELEPISTEMOLOGY 

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of this paper is to indicate the preliminary conditions that should be met by the concept of extended knowledge. Cognitive artifacts undoubtedly affect human cognition and knowledge. Research on knowledge should therefore take into account significant technological changes. In this paper, I make use of the concept of the Extended Mind, and in epistemological research, I use the reliabilist theories of justification. The effect of this combination is the analysis of the phenomenon of extended knowledge on the examples of extended perception and extended memory. Research conducted in the field of extended epistemology and telepistemology provides a significant support. 

Keywords: extended knowledge, extended mind, telepistemology, extended epistemology, extended cognitive system, telerobotic knowledge, augmented reality. 

 

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Marcin Trybulec 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: marcin.trybulec@umcs.pl 

 

TOWARDS THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF COGNITIVE ARTIFACTS

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper aims to justify the need for a philosophical reflection concerning the concept of cognitive artifact, as it is used in situated cognition, and, first of all, for conceptualize and defining them. I tentatively call this area “the epistemology of cognitive artifacts”. The paper forms the problem of reification of the cognitive artifacts and the problem of amplification in describing the cognitive impact of the artifacts. Additionally, the article discusses the issue of nonrepresentational artifacts and singles out a new class of artifacts which I call metacognitive artifacts. 

Keywords: cognitive artifacts, nonrepresentational artifacts, metacognitive artifacts, dynamic artifacts, internal artifacts, situated cognition, epistemology of cognitive artifacts. 

 

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Maciej Wodziński, Marek Hetmański 

Maciej Wodziński — Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: maciek.wodzinski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

Marek Hetmański — Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: marek hetmanski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl 

 

EXPERT KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE BY EXPERIENCE IN THE DOMAIN OF AUTISM 

 

ABSTRACT 

The article presents conceptions and theories of expert knowledge, as well as discussions on the epistemological status of expert knowledge, cognitive competences falling within the scope of expertise and expert authority. They are treated as a kind of extra-institutional knowledge, referring only to a small extent to the scientific knowledge and academic circles. The positions of Alvin Goldman, Harry Collins and R. Evans, Z. Majdik and W. Keith, T. Burge and J. Shanteau on the validity of expert knowledge and methods of its justification are presented. The paper points to the problematic nature and certain limitations of the traditional perspective on the credibility of expert knowledge and expert authority. On the example of the phenomenon of the autism spectrum and traditional judgments about it—in particular, expert opinions issued about people covered by it, as well as common opinions and stereotypes— the discussion on the changes taking place in this field of knowledge and social practice is presented. Conceptions of expertise by experience in the subject of autism are discussed, including the so-called self-advocacy and self-advocacy scientists. These new cognitive attitudes and social functions of autism spectrum experts are also analyzed from the point of view of the epistemological credibility of this type of knowledge and competence. 

Keywords: Expert knowledge, expertise, knowledge justification, cognitive competences, expert authority, expertise by experience, autism spectrum. 

 

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Jerzy Gołosz 

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Grodzka 52, 31-044 Cracow, Poland.

Email: jerzy.golosz@uj.edu.pl

 

THE PYTHAGOREANS, OR AN APOLOGIA FOR METAPHYSICS

 

ABSTRACT 

This paper attempts to demonstrate that the conviction about the harmony and order of the world was a fundamental metaphysical principle of the Pythagoreans. This harmony and order were primarily sought in the structures of arithmetics, yet following the discovery of incommensurable magnitudes (irrational numbers, as we now call them), the Pythagoreans began to see geometrical structure as a fundamental part of the world. On the example of the Pythagoreans’ metaphysics and science, the paper shows the mutual relations between metaphysics and science. It demonstrates—on the one hand—the necessity of the first as a guide for the latter, and—on the other—how our scientific research can change its basic metaphysical principles when these are found to be inappropriate. The paper also tries to show the need for a realistic approach in our scientific research by means of the same example of the Pythagoreans, that is, the need to discern something which is below the surface appearance. 

Keywords: Pythagoreans; metaphysics; science; scientific realism; philosophy of science; basic metaphysics; interpretative metaphysics. 

 

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Marek Maciejczak 

Warsaw University of Technology, Plac Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: marmaciejczak@poczta.onet.pl 

 

THE CONTEXT OF HABITATUALITY IN THE HUSSERLIAN THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS 

 

ABSTRACT 

Consciousness was the guiding thread of Edmund Husserl's phenomenological investigations. He understood it as a critique of experience and the metaphysics and science based on it. Phenomenology is a critique of cognition, a method of investigation and questioning. In his later writings Husserl defined consciousness as a “system of intentional functions,” a “system of intentional operations.” Its correlate is a coherent and regularized world. One of the most important aspects of the system of intentional functions are habitualities—patterns, mental representations which arise in the process of “typification” and henceforth guide our ordinary thinking and acting. Thanks to them, the type of object, its features and properties are predetermined and, in principle, the ways of knowing it are determined. My task is to characterize the broad context of habituality formation, that is, the stream of consciousness and the possibilities of feeling and movement of the bodily subject. I will discuss in turn the temporal structure of experience and its dependence on the movement and action of the bodily subject, and then characterize the form of general intimacy with the world. It is in this context of “indeterminate reality” that the constitution and evocation of the deposited sense, the anticipation of the type of object and its qualities play out. In conclusion, I will make some remarks about habituality as a source of empirical concepts. 

Keywords: Husserl, consciousness, habitualities, typification, empirical concepts. empiryczne. 

 

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Krzysztof Sołoducha 

Military University of Technology, gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland. 

Email: krzysztof.soloducha@wat.edu.pl

 

SOME REMARKS ON NATURALISTIC ATTEMPS TO RATIONALISE HERMENEUTICS

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of the text is to consider Gianni Vattimo’s claim that hermeneutics needs to be more rational due to its criticised relativism and aestheticism. From this perspective, the author considers the projects proposed by Bartosz Brożek and Chrysostomos Mantzavinos, based on the assumption that the cognitive phenomena underlying the understanding of human behaviour and the resulting artefacts can be described using naturalistic methods. Finally, the question is considered whether these attempts, coming from outside the hermeneutic movement, offer hope for eliminating the flaws of hermeneutics mentioned by Vattimo, and what are the prospects for further research on this issue. 

Keywords: hermeneutics, rationalisation of hermeneutics, philosophy of interpretation, methodology of humanities, naturalism, dataism, performative humanities, digital humanities, pedagogy. 

 

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Damian Winczewski 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: damian.winczewski@gmail.com

 

DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM AFTER „DIAMANT”: SCIENTIFIC DIALECTICAL ONTOLOGY AND NATURAL MATERIALISM

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of the article is to reconstruct the cardinal theses and assumptions of the materialistic-dialectical ontology in the post-Stalinist Marxist scientific philosophy, often described as "Eastern Marxism". Basing on the source literature covering the works of the most eminent Polish (Stefan Amsterdamski, Stanisław Butryn, Helena Eilstein, Władysław Krajewski, Jan Such, Wiesław Sztumski and others) and Soviet (Fedosseyev, Konstantinov, Szeptulin, Rubinshtajn, etc.) philosophers which studied the links between dialectical materialism and natural sciences, I claim that postwar Marxist scientism clarifies the concise intuitions of the classics of Marxism regarding the nature and assumptions of dialectical materialism, especially the dialectic of nature. Contrary to the current interpretations of the sources of dogmatism in Marxism as the dominant ontological assumption of dialectical and natural materialism, according to these findings, it turns out that after its post-war modernization, the dialectical ontology was cleared of numerous dogmas and misunderstandings. Moreover, it turns out to be consistent with the general assumptions of the anti-Stalinist Marxist social and political philosophy. 

Keywords: Dialectical materialism, Engels, ontology, scientific philosophy, Marxism, natural sciences.

 

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Alina Bernadetta Jagiełłowicz 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3, 51–149 Wrocław, Poland.

Email: alina.jagiellowicz@uwr.edu.pl 

 

ENGAGED PHILOSOPHY OF HEALTH PROTECTION

 

ABSTRACT

The text considers the concept of engaged philosophy of health protection. The recognized precursor of this philosophy is Julian Aleksandrowicz, a Polish doctor and humanist. Moral problems of the contemporary world, developed in the aspect of ultratechnology and information, are a discursive background of the presented analysis. The paper highlights a need of revaluating the neopositivitist legacy and systemic projects of pro-health methodology. The methodology includes the ideas of health protection at the individual’s level as well as of implementing order and peace in global society. According to this concept the aim can be achieved through integrating the scientific–technical revolution with the humanistic one and with the holistic interpretation of health. Health is defined in the category of emergent, dynamic and vital whole, reached as a synergic effect. In the model of the engaged philosophy the idea of self-creation assumes the value of „subjective health,” its counterweight is “objectified disease.” It is not indifferent to the ethical dimension of choice between life or death, determined in the character of an exclusive alternative. The study uses the method of qualitative research. The basic theses of engaged philosophy , defined in the light of the health care problem have been justified. 

Keywords: engaged philosophy, emergency, synergic effect, health care, peace. 

 

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Mariusz Mazurek 

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: mmazurek@ifispan.edu.pl 

 

CZESŁAW BIAŁOBRZESKI—PHYSICIST AND PHILOSOPHER

 

ABSTRACT 

In the first part of the article, I reconstruct the philosophical thoughts of Czesław Białobrzeski, a Polish philosophizing physicist. In the second part, I outline his biography and contribution to the development of physics. Philosophical reflections of Białobrzeski formed based on the leading issues in physics of the late 19th and mainly 20th century. He carried out his considerations in close connection to his scientific practice. The activity of the Polish scientist takes place in the formation and development period of quantum mechanics. Białobrzeski, similarly to many other physicists of the time, was well aware of the necessity of coherent explanation of the fundamentally new phenomena of the quantum mechanics. His take on the subject is rather original—he referred to the classical, philosophical theory of categories and proposed its ontological interpretation. 

Keywords: Czesław Białobrzeski, philosophy of nature, philosophy of physics, ontology, causality, potentiality. 

 

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Marek Błaszczyk 

Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 3, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

Email: marek_blaszczyk@onet.eu 

 

TOWARDS THE PROBLEM OF THE SENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

 

ABSTRACT 

The paper critically considers Alfried Längle’s view presented in his book Gdy rodzi się pytanie o sens. Praktyczne zastosowanie logoterapii [When the Question of Sense Arises. The Practical Application of Logotherapy] (Warszawa 2016). It invites to reflection focused on the problem of the sense of existence. 

Keywords: human being, existence, existentialism, sense, happiness. 

 

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Sebastian Kozera 

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Email: sebastiankozera@o2.pl 

 

SUPERINTELLIGENT BEINGS AS A SOURCE OF AN EXISTENTIAL THREAT ACCORDING TO NICK BOSTROM 

 

ABSTRACT 

This article presents Nick Bostrom’s considerations of the future included in his book Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Bostrom studies such issues as determining the hypothetic ways of attaining superintelligence, its nature and different aspects of this technology. He shows threats regarding such powerful systems, as well as constructing strategies of preventing undesirable activities of superintelligent beings. Bostrom’s input is an important part of present discussion concerning the development of artificial intelligence and its ethical problems. 

Keywords: superintelligence, artificial intelligence, orthogonality thesis, instrumental convergence thesis, control methods. 

 

 

8/2020 (2)

Andrzej Łukasik

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: lukasik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

ON PHYSICISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The article analyses physicists’ attitudes towards philosophy on the examples of the positions of eminent theorists. There are two physicists’ philosophical attitudes towards philosophy: pro-philosophical (Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, von Weizsäcker, Penrose, Rovelli) and anti-philosophical (Weinberg, Hawking, Feynman). I analyse some physicists' arguments for or against philosophy. It is demonstrated that physicists are most critical of all philosophical conceptions that accept a priori factors in cognition, while those who recognize the significance of philosophy for science most often refer to the Pythagorean-Platonic tradition as the proper basis for understanding modern physics.

Keywords: physics, philosophy, apriorism, positivism, Platonism, beauty.

 

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Stanisław Czerniak

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

 

MAX SCHELER’S PLURALISTIC CONCEPTION OF KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

This article aims to reconstruct Max Scheler’s conception of three types of knowledge, outlined in his late work Philosophical Perspectives (1928). Scheler distinguished three kinds of knowledge: empirical, used to exercise control over nature, eidetic (essential) and metaphysical. I review the epistemological criteria that underlie this distinction, and its functionalistic assumptions. In the article’s polemic part I accuse Scheler of a) crypto-dualism in his theory of knowledge, which draws insufficient distinctions between metaphysical and eidetic knowledge; b) totally omitting the status of the humanities in his classification of knowledge types; c) consistently developing a philosophy of knowledge without resort to the research tools offered by the philosophy of science, which takes such analyses out of their social and historical context (i.e., how knowledge is created in today’s scientific communities).

Keywords: types of knowledge, induction, essence, metaphysics, philosophical anthropology, Max Scheler.

 

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Pavlo Sodomora

Department of Latin and Foreign Languages, Lviv; Danylo Halytsky National Medical University, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Department of Philosophy. 

E-mail: pavlosodom@gmail.com

 

NATURALISM AND CONVENTIONALISM IN PLATO’S DIALOGUES AND NATIVISTIC THEORIES OF LANGUAGE

 

ABSTRACT

For Plato, language was the way to cognize the universe. The philosophy of language, which was primarily initiated by Plato in the Cratylus, still has not received answers to the questions settled by this great Greek thinker. In fact, it just offered various solutions formed in different conceptions and approaches in the ancient, scholastic, modern and postmodern periods. The questions raised by Plato in his dialogue have been continued in various nativistic theories of language, especially in works of Noam Chomsky. Language—as it is seen by Plato, i.e., as uniting our inner world with the outer world, is a significant feature of humankind, is still underinvestigated. 

Keywords: language, conventionalism, naturalism, interpretation, etymology, semiotics.

 

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Małgorzata Czarnocka

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mczarnocka@ifispan.edu.pl

 

EDMUND HUSSERL'S IDEA OF SCIENCE AND THE PROJECT OF PHENOMENOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

I investigate the idea of science elaborated by Edmund Husserl in his later works, first of all, in Cartesian Meditations and the Crisis of European Sciences. The first part of this investigation has been published in the paper: Edmunda Husserla idea nauki i projekt fenomenologii jako nauki ścisłej [Edmund Husserl’s Idea of Science and the Project of Phenomenology as a Strict Science], Filozofia i nauka. Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne, 2019, 7 (2), pp. 247-264. Husserl claims that the transformation of philosophy into a strict science, which is the basic aim of his intel­lectual enterprise, is connected with a reform of all the positive sciences. Positive science is closely related to philosophy—both they have a common grounding and ideal. The paper also compares Husserl's project of philosophy as a fundamental science with the today trends in philosophy and the plurality of its schools, attitudes, fields of problems and methods.

Keywords: Edmund Husserl, ideal of science, phenomenology, positive science.

 

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Paweł Dziedziul

University of Bialystok, ul. Świerkowa 20 B, 15-328 Białystok, Poland.

E-mail: paweldziedziul@gmail.com

 

STEVEN PINKER’S MELIORISM 

 

ABSTRACT

This article considers Steven Pinker’s recent outlook presented in his book Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism and Progress. The paper discusses not only current political and philosophical Pinker’s views on a considerable number of evidences in favor of mankind’s progress in the last period. The authors claims that Pinker’s views may serve as an antidote to the contemporary pessimism that is being spread inter alia by mass media. The reader is pulled into a debate regarding issues surrounding the contemporary state of being of the human race. This is something more than just pop-scientific excursion of a well-established specialist beyond his area of expertise, but a valuable aggregate of data enticing also to professionals from the realm of sociology, philosophy and politics. Above all Pinker’s voice should be regarded as a counterbalance to all-pervasive pejorism and however momentary relief.

Keywords: meliorism, pejorism, optimism, progressivism.

 

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Barbara Trybulec

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: barbara.trybulec1@gmail.com

 

THE SUBJECT OR AGENT? UNDERSTANDING SUBJECTIVITY IN THE COGNITIVE ARTEFACTS ERA

 

ABSTRACT

The philosophical tradition defines the subject as a reflective being, in principle aware of its agency which makes it capable of making free decisions and taking responsibility for them. Agency, understood in this way, is clearly attributed only to people. However, the technological development of artificial cognitive enhancements and of increasingly autonomous artificial intelligence, that has been taken place in last few decades, casts doubts whether such an approach is not too anthropocentric. This doubt is indicated by some proponents of extending cognitive processes beyond the human brain; they argue for the need of appropriate extension of the subject as well. Moreover, there is an increasing number of proposals attributing agency to artifacts. In the first part of the article, I refer to the two most commonly used philosophical criteria distinguishing the subject of cognition from all information processing systems: being a reflective system, and being the subject of intentional stance. Next, I assess, from such a perspective, the attempts to attribute agency to both one-person extended cognitive systems and artificial systems, such as relatively autonomous computer programs. I argue that the gap between conceptions of the extended subject and the artificial subject, and the standard approach incline toward the usage of the term “agent” designating this phenomenon. The term is already widely used in cognitive science to designate any relatively autonomous information processing system performing a cognitive task. The need of the clear distinction between “the subject” (“subjectivity”) and “the agent” (“agency”) is especially noticeable in Polish, where the difference in meanings of these concepts is not so evident as in English. The awareness of the applying in cognitive science these two different notions of agency prevents against a conceptual misuse which could lead to erroneous explanations and predictions.

Keywords: subject, agent, agency, extended mind thesis, extended cognitive system, cognitive enhancement, artificial cognitive system.

 

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Magdalena Łata, Andrzej Łukasik

Magdalena Łata – University of Warsaw, ul. Nowy Świat 69, 00-001 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: magdalena.lata@onet.eu

Andrzej Łukasik – Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: lukasik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

IS TRUTH ALWAYS BEAUTIFUL, THAT IS, HOW AESTHETIC VALUES CAN BECOME AN EPISTEMOLOGICAL OBSTACLE

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents the main functions of aesthetic values (beauty, simplicity, symmetry) in the process of formulating, evaluating and accepting scientific theories in the work of physicist: 1) they motivate to undertake scientific research; (2) have a heuristic role which enables the direction of the search for a new theory to be selected; (3) are a criterion for choosing between empirically equivalent theories in the absence of empirical evidences and (4) sometimes constitute an epistemological obstacle. The basic thesis of the work is that aesthetic values, in addition to positive functions, also play a negative role in science, hindering the acceptance of new theories or leading to inefficient research. Too much weight on the aesthetic side of theory can pose a threat to the objectivity of scientific cognition.

Keywords: beauty, symmetry, simplicity, true, epistemological obstacle, nonempirical criteria.

 

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Zdzisława Piątek

Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

E-mail: zdzislawa.piatek33@gmail.com

 

ABOUT THE NATURE OF HUNTING – THE PRESENT, THE PAST, AND THE FUTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses three stages in the development of hunting. Initially hunting had an adaptive value and contributed to the process of evolution of humanoids. When animals were domesticated hunting rituals still constituted an important element of cultural identity and were subject to various transformations due to the pressure from the state and the church. In the contemporary world, under the influence of ecology we witness the emergence of a new ethics which changes man's relationship to animals. Hunting cannot be reconciled with the morality of modern hu­manity. Some people demand a complete ban on hunting or that only bloodless tradition should be continued.

Keywords: hunting, evolution of humanoids, morality, modern humanity, ecology.

 

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Marcin Urbaniak

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorążych 2, Poland.

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com

 

ON THE NATURAL-SOCIAL HARMFULNESS OF HUNTING PRACTICES

 

ABSTRACT

The current model of hunting economy, focused mainly on killing innumerable number of game species and finding joy and benefit in it, does not totally fulfil crite­ria of sustainable, ethical and rational management. This work provides an overview of evidences that the moral evil of hunting, together with the whole hunting culture, are not rationally justifiable. I am going to validate there is no reasonable argument for maintaining hunting economy and culture in the on-going, archaic condition. I maintain that therefore an immediate system reform of our hunting economy is necessary. There is a broad list of objection to the different aspects of hunting practices, which are presented and discussed in short in the paper. A reformed hunting institution, endowed with veterinary service, should guard some animals' interests by different strategies of assuaging some conflicts among people and animals, as catching alive, flushing, separating or biosafety and professional reprocessing of infected corpses. The main recommendation for the ossified hunting tradition is the appeal for listening to the opinion of experts in natural sciences.

Keywords: hunting, hunting ethics, hunting culture, hunting practices, biosafety.

 

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Emanuele Coco

University of Catania, Italy; LAIOS-IIAC, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences. 

E-mail: emanuele.coco@unict.it

 

THE PHILOSOPHER AHEAD OF HIS TIME.

LUDWIK FLECK AND THE COMPLEXITY OF SCIENCE

(COMMUNICATION AND NOTES)

 

ABSTRACT

The new edition in Italian of the articles by the Polish microbiologist and philosopher Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) edited by Francesco Coniglione offers the opportunity for some considerations around this significant scholar. Fleck anticipates Kuhn's ideas as well as those of the sociology of science. For him, any epistemology that does not take psychological and sociological methods into account, or that does not concern itself with economics, technology, art, and even politics, is an epistemology imaginabilis. Here we discuss some key points of the essays collected in the book, some observations taken from the rich introduction of the editor, and an inevitable question: Why has Fleck been neglected for so long?

Keywords: Philosophy of science, sociology of science, Thomas Kuhn, Ludwik Fleck, thought collective, thought style.

 

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Zbysław Muszyński

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: zmuszyn@gmail.com

 

LEON KOJ'S SEMIOTIC CONDITION FOR MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING

 

ABSTRACT

Major works by Leon Koj deal with the issues of semiotics, logics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and ethics. Many of them refer to aspects of communication, however, this is not the main subject of his considerations. These references relate to the problems of satisfying: 1. the logical criteria, 2. the methodological criteria, 3. the ethical criteria, 4. the semiotic criteria. This article is dedicated to defining the semiotic criteria. It briefly covers basic semiotic notions present in Koj's works. On the basis of Koj's assumptions the concept of semiotics conditions for the realisation and functions of the communication process is defined.

Keywords: Leon Koj, communication, understanding, beliefs, rationality, criticism.

 

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Józef Dębowski 

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Kurta Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn, Poland.

E-mail: jozdeb@poczta.onet.pl

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY OF THE SIGN. LEON KOJ’S POINT OF VIEW

 

ABSTRACT

The article consists of two parts. In the first one (introductory) I recall—following Edmund Husserl, Stanisław Ossowski and Adam Schaff—the main formulations of the “principle of transparency of the sign.” In these formulations it is usually said about (1) the transparency of the sign regarding objects denoted by the sign (denoted, designated and/or named), or (2) the transparency of the sign regarding its meaning (respectively, events, states of affairs and facts designated by the sign). However, as Husserl pointed out, one can also speak about (3) the transparency of the sign in relations to the activities and mental states of the sign’s users (senders and recipients). After all, only due to the transparency of the sign understood in this way, it is possible for people to communicate with each other, thus the sign can also has an expressive and communicative function. In turn, the second part of the article (essential) contains a reconstruction of the Leon Koj’s approach; Koj gave a consistently formalized form to the theory of sign based on the principle of transparency—the form of an axiomatized logical system (using Quine's formalism from his Mathematical Logic). One of Koj's main goals was also to indicate the close relationship between semantics and pragmatics, and even the primacy of pragmatics over semantics. Formal-logical tools have also shown that the theory of sign based on the principle of transparency neither contravene The Law of Non-Contradiction (at least in its psychological formulation), nor contain or imply semantic antinomies such us antinomy of the liar. Because it is a theory easily negotiable with Alfred Tarski’s theory of language levels.

Keywords: logic, axiomatized logical system, semiotic, semantic, pragmatic, sign, meaning, denoted, designated, intentionality, the transparency of the sign, the principle of transparency, expressive function of the sign, communicative function of the sign, semantic antinomies. 

 

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Paweł Bytniewski

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: bytniewski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

 

ALINA MOTYCKA — PHILOSOPHER OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

In the paper, I present the views of Alina Motycka, a Polish philosopher of science who died in 2018. I place Motycka’s scholar activity in a historical context, relative to two traditions of the philosophy of science—its historical version signed by Thomas Kuhn, and the tradition of logical reconstruction of science which in the second half of the twentieth century was revived by the thought of Karl Popper. I believe that this historical situation forms the context in which Motycka shaped her view of the philosophy of science and, because of such a particular context, she has participated in it with her own problematizations. So, what constitutes the originality of her way? Two issues come to the fore here. The first is the reconstruction of the fundamental problem of the philosophy of science, which, according to Motycka, is the question of confronting two scientific theories, of which the earlier (T1) is replaced by a later and competitive one (T2). Motycka shows the inability of the epistemology of the second half of the 20th century to adequately capture this relationship. The reason for this is the lack of intellectual means to problematize the situation T1–T2. The second area of the author's interest is the issue of creativity in science. She was inspired by the theories of Carl G. Jung. In this context, it is of interest to use the philosophy of science of terms such as archetype and myth.

Keywords: Alina Motycka, philosophy of science, epistemology, C.G. Jung, archetypes, myth.

Table of Contens 8/2020 part 2

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies

Vol. 8, part 2, 2020

 

 

Editorial – 

About the second part of the eighth volume of the journal PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies​ 

 

Andrzej ŁukasikOn Physicists' Attitudes Towards Philosophy 

Stanisław CzerniakMax Scheler’s Pluralistic Conception of Knowledge 

Pavlo SodomoraNaturalism and Conventionalism in Plato’s Dialogues and Nativistic Theories of Language 

Małgorzata CzarnockaEdmund Husserl's Idea of Science and the Project of Phenomenology as a Science 

Paweł DziedziulSteven Pinker’s Meliorism 

Barbara TrybulecThe Subject or Agent? Understanding Subjectivity in the Cognitive Artefacts Era 

Magdalena Łata, Andrzej ŁukasikIs Truth Always Beautiful, That Is, How Aesthetic Values Can Become an Epistemological Obstacle 

Zdzisława PiątekAbout the Nature of Hunting – the Present, the Past, and the Future 

Marcin UrbaniakOn the Natural-Social Harmfulness of Hunting Practices 

 

POLISH THINKERS ABOUT SCIENCE

edited by Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska

 

Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska Polish Thinkers about Science. Introduction 

Emanuele CocoThe Philosopher Ahead of His Time. Ludwik Fleck and the Complexity of Science (Communication and Notes)

Zbysław MuszyńskiLeon Koj's Semiotic Condition for Mutual Understanding 

Józef Dębowski The Principle of Transparency of the Sign. Leon Koj’s Point of View 

Paweł BytniewskiAlina Motycka — Philosopher of Science 

Table of Contens 8/2020 part 1

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies

Vol. 8, part 1, 2020

 

THE ERA OF COMPUTERIZATION
Monothematic book edited by Małgorzata Czarnocka and Mariusz Mazurek


Małgorzata Czarnocka, Mariusz Mazurek — Introduction: THE ERA OF COMPUTERIZATION 
Jacek KoronackiArtificial Intelligence in the Disenchanted World 
Witold MarciszewskiThe Computational and Pragmatic Approach to the Dynamics of Science 
Kazimierz TrzęsickiThe Idea of Artificial Intelligence 
Andrzej Targowski, Henryk KrawczykInoformatics as a Field of Knowledge Supporting Human Endeavors 
Mariusz MazurekOn Virtual Objects 
Andrzej KiepasThe Human Being in the World of Digitalizing Processes – Present Challenges and Future Effects 
Beata Witkowska-MaksimczukDigital Communism 
Jacek GurczyńskiOn Values in the Digital Environment. Cypher’s Choice 
Paweł PolakComputational Modelling in Philosophy – Some Methodological Remarks 
Paweł StacewiczOn the Importance of Computer Science Concepts for Philosophy on the Example of the Distinction Between Digitality and Analogicity 
Sławomir LeciejewskiThe Big Data Problem in Experimental Sciences 

8/2020 (1)

Jacek Koronacki

Institute of Computer Science Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Jana Kazimierza 5, 01-248 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: jacek.koronacki@ipipan.waw.pl

 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE DISENCHANTED WORLD

 

ABSTRACT

This is a modest endeavour written from an engineering perspective by a nonphilosopher to set things straight if somewhat roughly: What does artificial intelligence boil down to? What are its merits and why some dangers may stem from its development in this time of confusion when, to quote Rémi Brague: “From the point of view of technology, man appears as outdated, or at least superfluous”?

Keywords: artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, machine learning, disenchanted world.

 

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Witold Marciszewski

International Center for Formal Ontology, affiliated at Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: witmar@calculemus.org

 

THE COMPUTATIONAL AND PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO THE DYNAMICS OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

Science means here mathematics and those empirical disciplines which avail themselves of mathematical models. The pragmatic approach is conceived in Karl R. Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery (p. 276) sense: a logical appraisal of the success of a theory amounts to the appraisal of its corroboration. This kind of appraisal is exemplified in section 6 by a case study—on how Isaac Newton justified his theory of gravitation. The computational approach in problem-solving processes consists in considering them in terms of computability: either as being performed according to a model of computation in a narrower sense, e.g., the Turing machine, or in a wider perspective—of machines associated with a non-mechanical device called “oracle” by Alan Turing (1939). Oracle can be interpreted as computertheoretic representation of intuition or invention. Computational approach in another sense means considering problem-solving processes in terms of logical gates, supposed to be a physical basis for solving problems with a reasoning. Pragmatic rationalism about science, seen at the background of classical rationalism (Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz etc.), claims that any scientific idea, either in empirical theories or in mathematics, should be checked through applications to problem-solving processes. Both the versions claim the existence of abstract objects, available to intellectual intuition. The difference concerns the dynamics of science: (i) the classical rationalism regards science as a stationary system that does not need improvements after having reached an optimal state, while (ii) the pragmatical version conceives science as evolving dynamically due to fertile interactions between creative intuitions, or inventions, with mechanical procedures. The dynamics of science is featured with various models, like Derek J. de Solla Price’s exponential and Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm model (the most familiar instances). This essay suggests considering Turing’s idea of oracle as a complementary model to explain most adequately, in terms of exceptional inventiveness, the dynamics of mathematics and mathematizable empirical sciences.

Keywords: algorithm, behavioral (vs declarative) knowledge, computability, corroboration, innate knowledge, intuition, invention, logic gates, oracle, pragmatic (vs classical) rationalism, problem-solving, reasoning, symbolic logic, Turing machine.

 

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Kazimierz Trzęsicki

University of Bialystok, ul. Świerkowa 20B, 15-328 Białystok, Poland.

E-mail: kasimir4701@gmail.com

 

THE IDEA OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence, both as a hope of making a substantial progress, and a fear of the unknown and unimaginable, has its roots in human dreams. These dreams were materialized by means of rational intellectual efforts. We see beginnings of such a process in Lullus’s fancies. Many scholars and enthusiasts participated in the development of Lullus’s art, ars combinatoria. Amongst them, Athanasius Kircher was distinguished. Gottfried Leibniz ended the period in which the idea of artificial intelligence had been shaped, and started a new one when artificial intelligence could be considered a part of science, according to today’s standards.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, ars combinatoria, Ramon Lullus, Athanasius Kircher, Gottfried Leibniz

 

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Andrzej Targowski, Henryk Krawczyk

Andrzej Targowski – Western Michigan University (1980–2017).

E-mail: andrew.targowski@wmich.edu

Henryk Krawczyk – Polska Akademia Nauk; Centrum Informatyczne Trójmiejskiej Akademickiej Sieci Komputerowej.

E-mail: hkrawk@pg.edu.pl

 

INOFORMATICS AS A FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE SUPPORTING HUMAN ENDEAVORS

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to answer the question of whether informatics is a field or just a discipline of knowledge. Analyzes of info-computer-based problems, consider that informatics in Poland should be treated as a field. It was emphasized that the English term computer science is only one of the informatics-oriented specializations. The word “informatics” can be associated much more often with terms; IT in the US and ICT in Europe except France, where l’informatique terminology is used). Which name to use since the narrow understanding of information processing and handling is losing its full potential for the right development. In practice, it means a reduction in undertaking ambitious tasks and the higher costs of its development. Social implications confirmed that, despite a lot of capable informaticians, Poland had not been seen (except for computer devices), the right development of informatics-oriented applications. Hence the essential general informaticsoriented strategy is offered because the digital equipment-oriented strategy alone is not enough to apply in success looking ICT applications.

Keywords: informatics, computer science, ICT, informatic strategy, social implications of informatics.

 

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Mariusz Mazurek

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mmazurek@ifispan.waw.pl

 

ON VIRTUAL OBJECTS

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents a brief exposition of alternative ways of creating virtual objects and the status of their existence inspired by the relevant views of Plato, Aristotle, Franz Brentano and Karl Popper as well as various conceptions of representation. I argue that the present state of research on the problem of “computer” virtuality shows that it is necessary to explore first the ontological issues of virtual objects. Only these issues will solve the mystery of the creation and existence of virtual objects. The consideration of these issues are suppressed by the fact that contemporary philosophy has removed both metaphysics and, with-it, ontology. That is why, and for reasons for reasons of substantive accuracy, I show how traditional ontological and ontologically inspiring approaches are—when modified— promising candidates for exploring the nature of virtual objects, first of all, problems of their existence and creation.

Keywords: virtuality, virtual object, virtual reality, representation in computer sciences.

 

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Andrzej Kiepas

Institute of Education and Communication Research, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Hutnicza 9, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

E-mail: andrzej.kiepas@us.edu.pl

 

THE HUMAN BEING IN THE WORLD OF DIGITALIZING PROCESSES – PRESENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE EFFECTS

 

ABSTRACT

The article focuses on selected problems which have now appeared and fall under the ideas “industry 4.0” and “society 5.0”, namely on anthropological issues. Changes in the relationships between man and technology based on trust lead to an increase of the role of the technological factor in these relations. Other aspects of the analyzed changes concern the new requirements of the responsibility and changes of human subjectivity and rationality. The future of man appears to be an area of uncertainty related to inter alia the conditions of functioning and living in the order of the post-digital world.

Keywords: industry 4.0, society 5.0, subjectivity, post-digital world.

 

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Beata Witkowska-Maksimczuk

Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: bwitkows@ans.pw.edu.pl

 

DIGITAL COMMUNISM

 

ABSTRACT

The article presents the phenomenon of increasing sharing in-formations for free on the Internet and the contemporary development of gift economy in the form of a movement most often called cybercommunism. The article points out two basic attitudes in treating information. According to the first one, information should be treated as a commodity to which property rights can be attributed and which is subject to market play. This involves such issues as copyright, fees, licenses and other ways of protecting the interests of market players. The second attitude is to treat valuable information as a common good, often with a moral imperative to share it (to varying degrees Open Source and Open Acces, the idea of copyleft, DIY, P2P network, YouTube, The Pirate Bay domain etc.). Since every concept or movement proclaiming a community of goods is called communism (in a broader sense of the word, in a narrower sense it is a specific political system, e.g. the Soviet Union), today we are dealing with digital communism on the Internet. Some researchers (Firer-Blaess, Fuchs) point to Wikipedia as an example. The Internet encyclopedia operates on the basis of principles that go beyond the capitalist way of production and represent an informational-communist way of production: in the subjective dimension, it is a cooperative work and in the objective dimension, a shared ownership of the means of production. The text also presents the division of ethics into an abstract and concrete one, applied to the behaviour of network users. If someone within the framework of an abstract ethics preaches the principle of “You will not pirate.” (copying and distributing illegally) is a corresponding principle of specific ethics that says “You will not pirate unless O1 or O2…or he.” In practice, concrete ethics push many Internet users to treat Internet resources as a common good, from which everyone can draw according to their own needs. Digital communism can be treated, on the one hand, as a partially implemented idea and, on the other, as a postulate. From an axiological point of view, this postulate would be connected with the Internet implementation of equality (access to resources for everyone) and freedom (access to all information).

Keywords: digital communism, cybercommunism, information ownership, concrete ethics, abstract ethics, community of goods.

 

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Jacek Gurczyński

Institute of Philosophy, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

E-mail: jacek.gurczynski@umcs.lublin.pl

 

ON VALUES IN THE DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT. CYPHER’S CHOICE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper tries to defend the thesis that it is impossible to decide upon moral issues without any references to the ontology of the world we live in. An illustrative example of the main argumentation line is the choice made by Cypher—a second plan character in the movie Matrix. Cypher decides to betray human rebels fighting against machines for freedom and, as a reward, accepts affluent life in the virtual reality. His choice seems to be superficially reprehensible because of the abandonment of the real world and authentic life. However, one can argue that the dichotomy between the real and virtual world is seeming. By choosing the virtual reality Cypher decided to act in a world which, like the real world, makes it possible to be a moral subject and enables authentic experience. The difference between both the worlds lies in the type of determination limiting any conscious subject. Cypher prefers to live in a world determined by the algorithm of Matrix more than in a world where his behaviour is determined by genes and other biological factors.

Keywords: free will, biological determinism, relativism, semantic anti-realism, ontology of the virtual reality, values in the virtual reality.

 

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Paweł Polak

Faculty of Philosophy of the Pontifical University of John Paul II in Crocow, ul. Kanonicza 9, 31-002 Crocow, Poland.

E-mail: pawel.polak@upjp2.edu.pl

 

COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING IN PHILOSOPHY – SOME METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS

 

ABSTRACT

Computational modeling plays an important role in the methodology of contemporary science. The epistemological role of modeling and simulations leads to questions about a possible use of this method in philosophy. Attempts to use some mathematical tools to formulate philosophical concepts trace back to Spinoza and Newton. Newtonian natural philosophy became an example of successful use of mathematical thinking to describe the fundamental level of nature. Newton’s approach has initiated a new scientific field of research in physics and at the same time his system has become a source of new philosophical considerations about physical reality. According to Michael Heller, some physical theories may be treated as the formalizations of philosophical conceptions. Computational modeling may be an extension of this idea; this is what I would like to present in the article. I also consider computational modeling in philosophy as a source of new philosophical metaphors; this idea has been proposed in David J. Bolter’s conception of defining technology. The consideration leads to the following conclusion: In the methodology of philosophy significant changes have been taking place; the new approach do not make traditional methods obsolete, it is rather a new analytical tools for philosophy and a source of inspiring metaphors.

Keywords: Computational modeling, methodology of philosophy, defining technology.

 

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Paweł Stacewicz

Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: p.stacewicz@ans.pw.edu.pl

 

ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE CONCEPTS FOR PHILOSOPHY ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN DIGITALITY AND ANALOGICITY

 

ABSTRACT

In this paper we show how formal computer science concepts—such as encoding, algorithm or computability—can be interpreted philosophically, including ontologically and epistemologically. Such interpretations lead to questions and problems, the working solutions of which constitute some form of pre-philosophical worldview. In this work we focus on questions inspired by the IT distinction between digitality and analogicity, which has its mathematical origin in the mathematical distinction between discreteness and continuity. These include the following questions: 1) Is the deep structure of physical reality digital or analog, 2) does the hu man mind resemble a more digital or analog computational system, 3) does the answer to the second question give us a cognitively fruitful insight into the cognitive limitations of the mind? As a particularly important basis for the above questions, we consider the fact that the computational power (i.e., the range of solvable problems) of some types of analog computations is greater than that of digital computations.

Keywords: information, digitality, analogicity, computing power, computational worldview.

 

–––––––––

 

Sławomir Leciejewski

Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: slaaw@amu.edu.pl

 

THE BIG DATA PROBLEM IN EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

In the paper the phenomenon of big data is presented. I pay my special attention to the relation of this phenomenon to research work in experimental sciences. I search for answers to two questions. First, do the research methods proposed within the paradigm big data can be applied in experimental sciences? Second, does applying the research methods subject to the big data paradigm lead, in consequence, to a new understanding of science?

Keywords: big data, experimental sciences, philosophy of science, methodology of science.

7/2019 (2)

Leszek Kuźnicki  

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Pasteur Street 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: l.kuznicki@nencki.gov.pl  

 

WHETHER AND HOW TO DEFINE LIFE?

 

ABSTRACT

Biology is a science on life. This definition, concise and most commonly used, is satisfactory for almost everybody. It is otherwise when one asks: What is life? Then it appears that no one feature can be indicated which distinguishes “the living” from “the non-living.” The author presents the sources of these difficulties and then gives his own attempt to solve the problem of definition of live—which is based on the idea of levels of the biological organization. In author’s view, to characterise the objects of research in biology we should apply not one concept of life (or of living organism) but three concepts: of organized biological matter (for the molecular and sub-cellular levels), of living organism (for the level of the specimen), and of life (for the sphere of phenomena which occur on the population-species-biocenotic level).

Keywords: definition of life, living organism, organized biological matter.  

 

–––––––––

 

Krzysztof Chodasewicz

 

LIFE, LIVING INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANISMS

 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an outline of the relationship between the categories of living individual, organism and life. I argue that although these categories are related with each other and often treated as the same, we should strive for their separation. The main argument for the distinction between the individual and life is of a methodological character: the definitions of life are mainly interested for astrobiologists and scientists working in the field of origin of life or artificial life, while the individual is important, among others, in standard evolutionary biology and ecology. Among the concepts of living individual various forms of evolutionary definition (individual as a unit of selection) currently dominate. The living individual understood in this way is not identical with a structurally limited and functionally integrated self-sustained entity, which is usually called “organism.” Moreover, the explanatory success of the evolutionary concept of individual, in my opinion, implies the adoption of some version of the evolutionary definition of life. In the last part of this paper I propose a process-evolutionary definition of life, which also indicates a relationship between the three aforementioned categories.

Keywords: living individual, the concept of organism, defining of life.  

 

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Adrianna Grabizna  

Institute of Psychology, The University of Zielona Góra, Al. Wojska Polskiego 69, 65-762 Zielona Góra, Poland.  

E-mail: a.grabizna@wpps.uz.zgora.pl    

 

„LIKE MOTHER, LIKE DAUGHTER — EVO-DEVO AND THE CONCEPT OF EXTENDED INHERITANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND OF THE TRANSGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF ATTACHMENT STYLE AND MENTALIZING CAPACITY”

 

ABSTRACT

Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) is becoming to be popular in psychology, and by certain is even seen as a new biology for psychology (Hofer 2014). In particular, it is about the concept of extended inheritance This concept claims to be (neo-) Lamarckian. According to it inherited is everything that contributes to resemblance across generations and that strongly affects the fitness of the offspring—starting by nuclear genes, by genes expression, maternal care, ecological niche, cultural niche, language, etc. In this paper I analyse the potential of the concept of extended inheritance on the example of transgenerational transmission of attachment style and mentalizing capacity. I present the neuroendocrine mechanism of transmission. Then I show that a) DNA methylation is complementary to neuroendocrine mechanism, but it does not revolutionize the latter as it is claimed; b) the concept of extended inheritance confounds the three questions rightly separated by Neo-Darwinism: origin of variation, fate of variation and inheritance, c) although the motivation of Evo-Devo goes against the alleged genetic determinism of neodarwinism, the concept of transgeneration inheritance is determinist (although it is an epigeneetic determinism).

Keywords: Evo-Devo, extended inheritance, attachment style, mentalizing, transgenerational inheritance.

 

–––––––––

 

Ewa Joanna Godzińska  

Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Pasteur Street 02-093 Warsaw, Poland. 

E-mail: egodzinska@nencki.gov.pl    

 

ETHOLOGY AND WHAT NEXT? SOME PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS INFLUENCING THE RESEARCH ON ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR

 

ABSTRACT

Animal behaviour and its underlying causal factors are investigated by numerous behavioural sciences. Ethology, one of the most important classical behavioural sciences, is concerned with the description and quantification of behaviour and the analysis of a wide spectre of its causal factors. Ethology also lays stress on the importance of comparative behavioural research and field research. Specific behaviour paterns were considered by classical ethology as elements of hierarchically organised behavioural systems focused on specific functions. The notion of instinct was, however, far from unequivocal and is no more frequently used in behavioural sciences. We also know that information flow between the levels of organization existing in the nervous system and in living systems in general is multidirectional. The assumption that processes running on higher levels of organization can and should be explained solely in terms of processes running on lower levels becomes thus largely groundless. In behavioural sciences reductionism can manifest itself also as the so called law of parsimony adopted during explanations of observed phenomena (Occam’s razor, Lloyd Morgan’s canon). Since the introduction of Karl Popper’s falisifiability criterion to the methodology of scientific research, reductionistic explanations of observed phenomena are, however, less frequently proposed in behavioural sciences. Instead, an approach currently used involves experimental testing of sets of hypotheses proposing alternative explanations of the observed phenomena, not necessarily the simplest ones. Classical ethology was the so called objectivist science of behaviour: its adherents did not deny the existence of subjective phenomena in animals, however, explanations of mechanisms of investigated phenomena in terms of underlying subjective processes were not considered to be sufficient. Presently we may put forward increasingly daring hypotheses concerning subjective experiences of animals thanks to the development of advanced techniques of neuroimaging such as the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioural sciences are constantly progressing and their methods become increasingly sophisticated. We can thus hope that philosophy and behavioural sciences will continue during a long time yet to contribute jointly to achieve new insights enriching our knowledge on factors influencing animal and human behaviour.

Keywords: ethology, behavioural sciences, instinct, information flow, reductionism, law of parsimony, falsifiability, subjective processes.  

 

–––––––––

 

Józef Andrzej Stuchliński  

Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-047 Warszawa, Poland.

E-mail: pelnomocnik@wszechnicapolska.home.pl    

 

ON FORMAL MODELS OF FACTORS AND MECHANISMS OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION

 

ABSTRACT

Two formal types of models of living processes, especially evolutionary ones, may be distinguished: the well-known mathematical type and the less-known logical one. The latter applies the terms “class” or “set”; both the terms are understood either in a collective sense (in mereology) or in a distributive sense (in set theory). These formal terms may be used among others to such organic multiplicities as populations or species of organisms, and to organic constituents (molecules, cells, organs) of living organism. Collective concepts refer to objects existing in nature, whereas distributive concepts refer to the linguistic and research constructions of models of natural objects, developed to cognitively grasp natural regularities.

Keywords: factors and mechanisms of evolution, mathematical model, logical model, classes and sets understood collectively, classes and sets understood distributively.  

 

–––––––––

 

Andrzej Gecow  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: gecow@op.pl; andrzejgecow@gmail.com   

 

A CURRENT RETURN TO LAMARCK IN AGREEMENT WITH DARWIN

 

ABSTRACT

Currently, the “Lamarckian dimension” and “Lamarckian mechanisms” are vividly discussed, indicating that they are compatible with Darwinism. However, they require an extension of Modern Synthesis to Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Both the terms, unfortunately connected to Lamarck, really indicate a group of phenomena which can be symbolized by Jablonka’s wording: “some evolutionary changes are non-random in origin, or even result from instruction.” The Lamarckian mechanisms leading to these evolutionary changes arose, however, in the Darwinian way much earlier. This earlier stage is said too rarely, and the typical understanding of Lamarckism strongly suggests its lack. The term “Lamarckism” was and is understood very differently both at different times and in different national and ideological traditions but usually fraught with a simplified understanding of Lamarck. Most of the controversies in these issues arise from the insufficient precision of the utterance, and this from undervaluation of definition, specification of assumptions and abstract reasoning.

Keywords: Lamarkism, Lamarkian mechanisms, heredity, Extendent Evolutionary Synthesis.

 

–––––––––

 

Krzysztof Chodasewicz 

 

LIFE AND MIND. TWO SIDES OF THHE SAME?

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to discuss possible connections between the categories of mind and life. Some authors argue that life and mind are closely connected or even are two sides of the same phenomenon. I analyze and examine this thesis in the light of different approaches to defining life: the metabolic approach (which stresses the importance of self-maintenance and self-making) and the evolutionary approach (which focuses on evolution by natural selection). The first way of defining life is Maturana and Varela' conception of autopoiesis, the second is Korzeniewski's cybernetic definition of life and van Hateren's modified Darwinian definition of life. Especially interesting is the possibility of connecting mind and life in the evolutionary framework. The text does not provide exact results, but rather it proposes possible modes of thinking of the relation of these two categories.

Keywords: definition of life, relations between life and mind, life and cognition, autopoiesis, cybernetic definition of life, Darwinian definition of life. 

 

–––––––––

 

Aleksander A. Ziemny  

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: aleksander.ziemny@amu.edu.pl    

 

ISSUES WITH GENE CONCEPT

 

ABSTRACT

This article provides an initial analysis, from a historical standpoint, of the problematic nature of conceptualizations of the notion of gene in molecular genetics. The starting point is an historical outline of the relation between classical genetics and molecular genetics; it is indicated how the conceptual baggage of classical genetics influenced the development of the concepts of gene used later in molecular biology. I also reveal two problems of genes in the philosophy of science, i.e., skepticism concerning genes and the concept of nominal gene. I conclude that concept of gene functioning within the framework of molecular genetics should be considered from the point of view of experimentalism and pragmatism. It seems that the concept of gene on the molecular level should be conceptualized—in order to remain functional—as broadly as possible and in relation to genetic material.

Keywords: philosophy of biology, genetics, new experimentalism. 

 

–––––––––

 

Iwona Olejniczak  

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland.

E-mail: iw.olejniczak@gmail.com   

 

INTENTIONAL APES BEHAVIOR

 

ABSTRACT

The main topic of this article is apes’ intentional behaviour. I consider the Michael Tomasello’s concept of intentionality. I outline how different levels of intentionality presented by Tomasello could be applied to apes’ behaviour. To do so I examine few experiments and observations (in natural conditions) of apes’ behaviour and try to apply Tomasello’s intentionality concepts. My main concern is the possibility of group and shared intentionality in ape communities, which could suggest that there is some kind of culture oriented behaviour in non-human animals.

Keywords: intentionality, individual intentionality, joint intentionality, collective intentionality, ape, chimpanzees, natural environment. 

 

–––––––––

 

Leszek Żuk  

Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Koszarowa 3/20, 51-149 Wrocław, Poland.  

E-mail: leszuk@vp.pl    

 

THE DIRECTNESS IN PROCESSES OF EVOLUTION

 

ABSTRACT

One of the fundamental problems in evolutionary sciences is the direction of evolution at different levels of matter organization. According to traditional teleological interpretations, the evolving systems should develop toward a final state—a goal. However, in most cases such a goal is not determinable—scientists do not know it. However, they can reveal a general tendency or a series of changes in time: a teleonomy or a directness based mainly upon an internal pattern of the evolving system although modified also by external influences. Teleonomical processes are responsible for all evolutionary processes including transitions from one level of organization to another.

Keywords: evolution, directness, goal directness, teleonomy, levels of matter organization. 

 

–––––––––

 

Dariusz A. Szkutnik  

currently an independent researcher.   

 

SEARCHING FOR DYNAMICAL ORGANIC DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES. METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS

 

ABSTRACT

Author’s aim is to highlight problems related to the course of regulatory processes in the structures of the living organism. In this research area the question arises what is the task of causal factors and mechanisms governing regeneration processes, including building new parts of the body. Despite the vast knowledge already gained in this field, the way to restore the functional regeneration of some structures of the organism is still to be discovered.

Keywords: regeneration, development, cause, factors.

 

–––––––––

 

Alicja Kubica  

Pedagogical University of Krakow, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Cracow, Poland.  

E-mail: alicewanderer@gmail.com     

 

TYTAN VERSUS ENCELADUS — ON THE MULTITUDE OF THEORIES OF BIOGENESIS AND ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL AWARENESS OF SCIENTISTS

 

ABSTRACT

The text was created on the basis of interviews with Caltech scholars (Pasadena, USA) in 2018. The talks concerned various contemporary theories of biogenesis and the role of their philosophical premises. The researchers also addressed the issue of popularizing science. The worldview is shaped (and established) by popularizing publications. They also answered the questions how their personal beliefs influenced on research.

Keywords: theoretical synthesis, biogenesis, popular science.  

 

–––––––––

 

Włodzimierz Ługowski  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: wlugowsk@fispan.waw.pl    

 

LIFE AS A NATURAL PROPERTY OF MATTER

 

ABSTRACT

This work is a contribution to understanding the philosophical dimension of the breakthrough that took place in the 20th century historical natural science as a result of the extrapolation of Darwin’s idea of evolution to the area of inanimate matter and the formulation on this basis of a number of theories of pre-biological chemical evolution. The revealed results are the inaccurate recognition of the philosophical foundations of the broadly understood science of evolution: on the one hand, for scientists-naturalists, and on the other, in a much broader, social dimension of their research.

Keywords: nature of life, pre-biological chemical evolution, biogenesis, Weltanschauung.  

 

–––––––––

 

Stanisław Czerniak  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl     

 

RICHARD MÜNCH’S THEORY OF ACADEMIC CAPITALISM. AN ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION AND A PHILOSOPHICAL COMMENTARY

 

ABSTRACT

The author reviews the main elements of Richard Münch’s academic capitalism theory. By introducing categories like “audit university” or “entrepreneurial university,” the German sociologist critically sets the present academic management model against the earlier, modern-era conception of academic research as an “exchange of gifts.” In the sociological and psychological sense, the latter is a social communication structure rooted in traditional social lore, for instance the potlatch ceremonies celebrated by some North-American Indian tribes which Marcel Mauss described. Münch shows the similarities between that old “gift exchanging” model and the contemporary one with its focus on the psychosocial fundamentals of scientific praxis, and from this gradually derives the academic capitalism conception. His conclusion is the critical claim that science possesses its own, inalienable axiological autonomy and anthropological dimension, which degenerate in result of capitalism’s “colonisation” of science by means of state authority and money (here Münch refers to Jürgen Habermas’s philosophical argumentation). The author also offers many of his own reflections on the problem, which allows Münch’s analyses to be viewed in a somewhat broader context.

Keywords: academic capitalism, audit university, entrepreneurial university, potlach, gift exchanging, prestige, identity of the subject, anthropology of science.  

 

–––––––––

 

Małgorzata Czarnocka  

Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

IDEA OF SCIENCE AND THE PROJECT OF PHENOMENOLOGY AS EXACT SCIENCE—EDMUND HUSSERL

 

ABSTRACT

I investigate Husserl’s long-term research on revealing/constructing a proper idea of science. For Husserl this idea was of tremendous importance: it had to be the basis of forming a (the) proper philosophy (phenomenology), that is, a philosophy which was to be an exact science, a new and higher form of science. According to Husserl, the idea of science is not a free project of individual researchers, scientific communities, but the very essence of science—changeless, universal, nontransformable, non-culturally and socially loaded, ahistorical, and non-relativized to scientific praxis. It was attempt to determine a new status of philosophy which led Husserl’s to the consideration of a universal idea of science.

Keywords: idea of science, Edmund Husserl, positive sciences, philosophy as an exact science, phenomenology.  

 

–––––––––

 

Tomáš Čanal

Department of Philosophy and Applied Philosophy, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Námestie J. Herdu 2, 917 01 Trnava, Slovakia.

E-mail: tomas.cana73@gmail.com  

 

KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE AND A RADICAL SCEPTICISM

 

ABSTRACT

According to Descartes, it is possible to doubt successfully that there is external world, all around us, yet still to have language, in place, without any complication. According to Wittgenstein, to doubt everything about the external world except language means nothing more than to doubt everything about the external world including language. Why? No speaker is more certain about the meaning of his words than about the external things he believes to be unassailable (for example, that he has two hands and two legs). Without this constitutive connection there would be no communication of a definite sense. Wittgenstein suggests that, after the author of the Meditations on First Philosophy adopts the hypothesis of evil deceiver, we are only under the impression that we deal with language (or that we read a text). We instead deal with symptoms of something rather different. The objective of this paper is to critically reassess Wittgenstein’s criticism of the possibility of holding such a radical sceptical position.

Keywords: Cartesian doubt, certainty, Descartes, epistemology, Evil Deceiver, knowledge, scepticism, Wittgenstein.

 

–––––––––

 

Jadwiga Skrzypek-Faluszczak

Faculty of Sociology and History Institute of Sociology, University of Rzeszów, Aleja Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.

E-mail: jadwiga_f@interia.pl  

 

SOURCES OF PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION. IRRATIONALITY OF RATIONALITY AS A SUBSTRATE

 

ABSTRACT

This work attempts to reconstruct the culture that contributed to the philosophical way of thinking. My goal is to extract two important factors: religion carrying individual experience and the importance of certain ideas which are present in that culture. Sources of philosophical thinking can be found in the structure of polis. Only on its basis could the idea of the wise man and citizen as well as religion-oriented individual experience be raised. Greek polis paves the way for a new style of thinking by creating the conditions for its citizens to follow the ideal, regardless of the position they occupy in society. Sustainability, which should be a feature of a good citizen, is also the essence of society. Highly positioned wisdom as moral reflection tinged with religiosity allows thinking according to the laws of logos. Finally, the experience offered by the mystery cults leads to the transformation of their own existence and the emergence of a way of recognition of reality different than before. Undeniably, all the elements related to structure policies with its ideals contribute to the emergence of a new way of thinking in the form of philosophy. One could say that the philosophical objectivity is preceded by the subjectivity and rationality of its roots dating back to irrationality.

Keywords: irrationalism, divinity, structure polis, philosophy, religious experience.

 

–––––––––

 

Marzenna Cyzman  

Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 3, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

E-mail: mcyzman@umk.pl  

 

SURPRISING PEREGRINATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF CONCEPTS. ON THE THOUGHT COLLECTIVE OF LUDWIK FLECK AND THE INTERPRETIVE COMMUNITY OF STANLEY FISH

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is to compare the thought collective and the interpretive community, two surprisingly similar notions formulated independently by Ludwik Fleck and Stanley Fish. In contemporary discourse, both concepts are used as synonims, while an accurate analysis of the contexts of the use of interesting terms proves that the equivalent of the interpretive community is rather thought collective, as well as the thought style, both of these concepts in the deliberations of Fish are subject to contamination. The exact repartition of the notion of interpretive community seems to be important due to the frequency of its use in works in the field of literary interpretation and cognition. The article also presents more general remarks on the functioning and possible origin of twin terms and their role in scientific cognition.

Keywords: thought collective, thought style, interpretive community, sociology of knowledge, interpretation.  

Table of Contens 7/2019 part 2

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Philosophical and Interdisciplinary Studies

Vol. 7, part 2, 2019


Editorial – ABOUT PART 2 OF VOLUME 7 JOURNALS PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. Philosophical and interdisciplinary studies 

 

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES.

ON THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF PROFESSOR LESZEK KUŹNICKI
edited by Włodzimierz Ługowski


Włodzimierz ŁugowskiPhilosophical Problems of Biological Sciences on the Ninetieth Anniversary of the Birth of Professor Leszek Kuźnicki. Introduction 
Leszek KuźnickiWhether and How to Define Life? 
Krzysztof ChodasewiczLife, Living Individuals and Organisms 
Adrianna Grabizna„Like Mother, Like Daughter — Evo-Devo and the Concept of Extended Inheritance in the Context of Psychology and of the Transgenerational Transmission of Attachment Style and Mentalizing Capacity” 
Ewa Joanna GodzińskaEthology and what Next? Some Philosophical Questions Influencing the Research on Animal Behaviour 
Józef Andrzej StuchlińskiOn Formal Models of Factors and Mechanisms of Organic Evolution 
Andrzej GecowA Current Return to Lamarck in Agreement with Darwin 
Krzysztof ChodasewiczLife and Mind. Two Sides of the Same? 
Aleksander A. ZiemnyIssues with Gene Concept 
Iwona OlejniczakIntentional Apes Behavior 
Leszek ŻukThe Directness in Processes of Evolution 
Dariusz A. SzkutnikSearching for Dynamical Organic Developmental Processes. Methodological Remarks 
Alicja KubicaTytan versus Enceladus — on the Multitude of Theories of Biogenesis and on the Philosophical Awareness of Scientists 
Włodzimierz ŁugowskiLife as a Natural Property of Matter 

 

Studies and Dissertations
Stanisław CzerniakRichard Münch’s Theory of Academic Capitalism. An Attempt of Reconstruction and a Philosophical Commentary 
Małgorzata CzarnockaIdea of Science and the Project of Phenomenology as Exact Science—Edmund Husserl 
Tomáš ČanalKnowledge of Language and a Radical Scepticism 
Jadwiga Skrzypek-FaluszczakSources of Philosophical Reflection. Irrationality of Rationality as a Substrate 
Marzenna CyzmanSurprising Peregrinations And Relationships Of Concepts. On The Thought Collective Of Ludwik Fleck And The Interpretive Community Of Stanley Fish 

7/2019 (1)

Göran Sonesson

Division of Cognitive Semiotics, Lund University, Helgonabacken 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
E-mail: goran.sonesson@semiotik.lu.se

 

SEMIOSIS IN HISTORY. THE EMERGENCE OF ALTER-CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

Following upon Merlin Donald’s claim that human specificity emerges in history, and not exclusively in evolutionary time, it will be suggested that the diversified means of producing semiosis created by human beings account for the spread of empathy and altruism not only beyond the kin group, but to humankind in general. This amounts to treating other cultures as different from us, but still able to enter into communication with us (as an Alter), as opposed to treating these cultures as being part of nature, and thus only susceptible to being communicated about (as an Alius). Starting out from the theory of bio-cultural evolution defended by Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd, as well as from the multi-level selection theory of Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson, we try to lay bare the way in which semiotic structures play a role for transforming cultural evolution, contrary to biological evolution, into human history. We inquiry into what makes the existence of Alter-culture possible, if, as Sober and Wilson have claimed, armed with game theory, an altruistic society (an Ego-culture in our terms), is only possible in opposition to another group in relation to which group egoism rules (that is, in our terms, an Alius-culture). We will follow Michael Tomasello in arguing for the primacy of games of cooperation, rather than competition, while adding an historical dimension, which serves to explain how such cooperation can be extended beyond the primary group (our Ego-culture). However, we will insist on the importance of multiple semiotic resources for the boot-strapping of empathy and altruism, as well as on the genesis of this process in cultural encounters, as reflected in the spirit of the Enlightenment.

Keywords: Cognition, semiotics, empathy, altruism, bio-cultural coevolution.

 

–––––––––

 

Shekoufeh Mohammadi Shirmahaleh

Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Maestro Mario de la Cueva S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacan, CDMX, Mexico.

E-mail: smohammadi@comunidad.unam.mx  

 

PEIRCEAN METAPHOR REEXAMINED: CREATION, FUNCTION AND INTERPRETATION

 

ABSTRACT

The Peircean iconic metaphor takes the concept of metaphor beyond linguistic and literary metaphors and does not even limit it to the “conventional metaphor” of Lakoff and Johnson’s cognitive theory. Given Peirce’s short and somewhat ambiguous definition of the metaphorical icon, a closer study of this category of icons is necessary for a better understanding of a concept that surpasses in many respects the earlier definitions of metaphor. It is also necessary to observe metaphors from the perspective of their creator: a perspective that is not usually adopted in other theories of metaphor, since much of the debates consider only the structure of the metaphor and its function with a focus on its interpretation, and do not discuss how the creator of the metaphor reaches or creates a metaphor. The present article aims at filling the mentioned blanks.

Keywords: Charles Sanders Peirce, iconic metaphor, final interpretation, iconicity.  

 

–––––––––

 

Donna West

Modern Languages Department, State University of New York at Cortland, USA Old Main Building, Room 227-B NY 13045, Cortland, USA.

E-mail: westsimon@twcny.rr.com  

 

SEMIOTIC DETERMINANTS IN EPISODE-BUILDING: BEYOND AUTONOETIC CONSCIOUSNESS

 

ABSTRACT

This account examines how episodes are constructed and measured, and how Peirce’s Index informs and even hastens the advancement of this process—from binding spatial features, to the awareness of participant roles and temporal sequencing. It provides semiotic rationale for how episodes develop from static single pictures (dependent on verbatim memory) to events whose frames reflect a deictic and sequential character—superseding the consciousness inherent in autonoesis. Empirical evidence will trace children’s event memory—first iconic and static, and later characteristic of increasingly more complex interpretants which specify directional and logical relations, and memory sources. The signs which promote episodic thought are indexical in nature, given their largely relational character. They incorporate deictic projections of the self in diverse orientations, entering into different participant slots inherent to the event. Notice of the latter entails the influence of index to apprehend the spatial, participatory, and temporal directionality within and across event frames. This progression requires a rudimentary consciousness of aspectual features (telicity, dynamicity), as well as an appreciation for the events’ purposes/goals. Anticipating how, where, and when events conclude is critical to realizing the event’s purpose/goal, since, according to Bauer 2006: 384, it constitutes the basis upon which episodes are constructed.

Keywords: Episode-building, episodic memory, indexical signs, autonoetic consciousness.  

 

–––––––––

 

Jens Allwood, Elisabeth Ahlsén Jens Allwood

SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Forskningsgången 6, Hus Patricia, Lindholmen, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.

E-mail: jens.allwood@ait.gu.se

E-mail: elisabeth.ahlsen@gu.se  

 

DIMENSIONS OF CONTEXT. CLASSIFYING APPROACHES TO THE CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION

 

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the concept of context with a special focus on the context of communication. We suggest two ways of classifying approaches to the context of communication: (i) classifying approaches based on a number of relevant dimensions for analyzing context in social activities, (ii) classifying approaches, based on the dimensions of Peirce’s semiotics. We also discuss the use of collected corpora of language, especially multimodal corpora of spoken interaction, as an aid in studying context. Finally, building on the two ways of classifying approaches to the context of communication, we present our own proposal for how to analyze the main relevant contextual dimensions influencing human interaction and communication

Keywords: Context, approaches to context, dimensions of context, syntactic context, semantic context, pragmatic context, semiotics, representamen, object, interpretant, relevant contexts. 

 

–––––––––

 

Paul A. Wilson, Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk

Paul A. Wilson — University of Łódz Institute of English Studies Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics, Pomorska 171/173, 90-236 Łódź, Poland.

E-mail: paul.wilson@uni.lodz.pl

Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk — State University of Applied Sciences in Konin, Department of Research in Language, Literature, and Translation, Przyjaźni 1, 62-510 Konin.

E-mail: blt@konin.edu.pl  

 

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE AND CONCEPTUAL CLUSTERS OF EMOTION TERMS

 

ABSTRACT

The major underlying principle of the present paper is that, in opposition to the viewpoint of emotions as discrete entities, emotions are represented as clusters in conceptual space. The graded structure and fuzzy boundaries inherent in the prototype-periphery nature of these clusters dictate that the meaning of a specific emotion is governed by both inter- and intra-cluster relationships and their interactions. In addition to these relationships and interactions the paper examines both external and internal affects to compare and contrast the FEAR, COMPASSION, LOVE/JOY, and PRIDE clusters in British English and Polish. The three specific methods employed to analyze these are the GRID instrument, an online emotions sorting task, and a corpus-based cognitive linguistic methodology.

Keywords: emotions, conceptual clusters, British English, Polish, fear, compassion, love/joy, pride, GRID, online emotions sorting task, corpus methodology. 

 

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Elżbieta Magdalena Wąsik

Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of English, Department of Older Germanic Languages, Collegium Heliodori Święcicki, ul. Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań, Poland.

Email: wasik@wa.amu.edu.pl  

 

EXPOSING THE DIALOGICAL NATURE OF THE LINGUISTIC SELF IN INTERPERSONAL AND INTERSUBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS FOR THE PURPOSES OF LANGUAGE-AND-CONSCIOUSNESS-RELATED COMMUNICATION STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at elaborating the concept of linguistic self with regard to its twofold existence modes, namely as a physical person and as a mental subject, being shaped by external and internal dialogs in interpersonal and intersubjective communication. These dialogical encounters, constantly changing the reality of everyday life, are based, on the one hand, on the observable multitextuality of narratives, and on the other, on the multi-voicedness of opinions. As such, it lays emphasis on the need for a holistic approach to human beings as a psychosomatic unity, taking part in cognition with their minds and bodies, and developing itself both in-and-with the physical and logical domains of their surrounding ecosystems. In view of the private and public character of the self, the author postulates to consider in future studies the achievements of personal and social constructivism.

Keywords: cognition, consciousness, intersubjectivity, language, the dialogical self.  

 

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Zdzisław Wąsik

Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław, Department of Linguistic Semiotics and Communicology, ul. Sienkiewicza 32, 50-335 Wrocław.

E-mail: zdzis.wasik@gmail.com  

 

EPISTEMOLOGY AS A SEMIOTIC CARTOGRAPHY OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AND COGNITION

 

ABSTRACT

The subject matter of this article constitutes the semiotic mapping of human of knowledge which results from cognition. Departing from the presentation of human subjects as world-model-builders, it places epistemology among the sciences of science and the sciences of man. As such the understanding of epistemology is referred either to a static state of knowledge or to a dynamic acquisition of knowledge by cognizing subjects. The point of arrival, in the conclusive part of a this article, constitutes the substantiation of the two understandings of epistemology, specified, firstly, as a set of investigative perspectives, which the subject of science has at his/her disposal as a knower on the metascientific level, or, secondly, as a psychophysiological endowment of a cognizing subject who possesses the ability of learning and/or knowing a certain kind of information about cognized reality.

Keywords: cartography of ideas, epistemology, knowledge, cognition, semiotics.    

Table of Contens 7/2019 part 1

FILOZOFIA I NAUKA
Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne
Tom 7, część 1, 2019


COGNITIVE SEMIOTICS:
PERSPECTIVES ON THE STUDY OF MEANING-MAKING

Edited by Piotr Konderak


Piotr KonderakIntroduction: Perspectives on the Study of Meaning-Making 


I. Semiotic Perspective
Göran SonessonSemiosis in History. The Emergence of Alter-Culture 
Shekoufeh Mohammadi ShirmahalehPeircean Metaphor Reexamined: Creation, Function and Interpretation 
Donna WestSemiotic Determinants in Episode-Building: Beyond Autonoetic Consciousness 


II. Linguistic Perspective
Jens Allwood, Elisabeth AhlsénDimensions of Context. Classifying Approaches to the Context of Communication 
Paul A. Wilson, Barbara Lewandowska-TomaszczykCognitive Structure and Conceptual Clusters of Emotion Terms 
Elżbieta Magdalena WąsikExposing the Dialogical Nature of the Linguistic Self in Interpersonal and Intersubjective Relationships for the Purposes of Language-and-consciousness-related Communication Studies 


III. Metatheoretical Perspective
Zdzisław Wąsik Epistemology as a Semiotic Cartography of Human Knowledge and Cognition