Author Archives: Małgorzata Czarnocka

6/2018

Ignacy S. Fiut

Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30–059 Kraków.

E-mail: isf1949@o2.pl; isfiut@agh.edu.pl  

 

IS THE “FOURTH WORLD” POSSIBLE IN KARL R. POPPER’S EVOLUTIONARY EPISTEMOLOGY MODEL?

 

ABSTRACT

The work analyses the concept of three worlds formulated by Karl R. Popper. His arguments make it possible to distinguish in this field of research the fourth world— that of the development and application of human knowledge. The criteria of Popper's division are accepted and some doubts concerning his conception are dispelled by the arguments of researchers dealing with the evolution and development of traditional, electronic and Internet media. Those arguments point the need of the concept of fourth world. The author discusses the views of technological determinants in communication authored by M. McLuhan, D. De Kerckhove, P. Levinson, H. Jenkins and J. Pleszczyński who provide reasonable arguments for this new classification. The Popper’s model of three worlds is thus enriched by the fourth world—the world created by users of old and new media, the internet, and multimedia in communication. It is a real world, rooted in the three other worlds.

Keywords: Karl R. Popper’s three words, fourth world, new media of communication, M. McLuhan, D. De Kerckhove, P. Levinson, H. Jenkins and J. Pleszczyński.  

 

 

 

Stanisław Czerniak

Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warszawa.

E-mail : stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl  

 

JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS: THE HUMANITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE UNITY OF SCIENCE CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

The author recounts the main threads of Jürgen Mittelstrass’s philosophy of the humanities. In it, the German philosopher starts out with the critique of J. Ritter’s and O. Maquard’s so-called functionalistic and dualistic conception of the human sciences, stating preference for methodological monism, which sees all sciences united by the universal rules of rationality. Mittelstrass seeks this unity both in the trans-disciplinary trends in contemporary science, as well as in certain epistemological similarities and similarities in research praxis between scientific disciplines. The author also points to Mittelstrass’s Kantian inspirations, and his clever adaptation of the “power of judgement” concept for the purposes of his own argumentation. In a final resume, he passes a generally positive opinion about the discussed conception with some critical comments.

Keywords: The humanities/the human sciences, rationality, the compensatory functions of the humanities, power of judgement, trans-disciplinary, research praxis.  

 

 

 

Małgorzata Czarnocka

Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00–330 Warszawa.

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

HOW IS SCIENCE UNIVERSAL?

 

ABSTRACT

I examine the problem of universalities of science and the thesis on the antiuniversality of science commonly postulated in socialized conceptions of science. In the paper epistemic universality, ethical-axiological and global cultural-social universality, and in the latter—global universality of the basic level are distinguished. It is investigated why in epistemology science is necessarily viewed as universal in its basic aspects. It is shown that universality is a necessary effect of validity and autonomy of science. It is also demonstrated that multiculturalism improperly treats science as necessarily anti-universalistic. I propose the position of global universalism of the basic level which claims that science emerges from the cultural basis, common for all the cultures. This universalism adopts multiculturalism (cultural pluralism) on higher levels of culture. I also consider how epistemic and global universality—features of science—become its values, and what are their significance for the human world.

Keywords: epistemology, socialized conceptions of science, the universality of science, epistemic universality, global social-cultural universality, universality as a value.   

 

 

 

Marek Suwara

Instytut Filozofii UJ, ul. Grodzka 52, 31–044 Kraków.

E-mail: marek marek.suwara@uj.edu.pl  

 

ANALOGIES REFERRING TO INFORMATION SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY IN EXPLAINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The level of adequacy of an analogy determines its effectiveness in scientific explanation. This thesis is examined in the context of analogies to information science and biology used in the concept of cultural meme, which is supposed to be substantial in explaining science or culture in the terms of evolution. It is shown that the choice of the cultural equivalent of biological specimen is crucial to interpreting the evolution of culture as that of the Lamarckian or Darwinian type.

Keywords: evolution, culture, analogy, meme.  

 

 

 

Jagna Brudzińska

IFiS PAN, afiliacja: Husserl-Archiv der Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln, Niemcy.

E-mail: jbrudzinska@gmail.com  

 

PHENOMENOLOGY AS A THEORY OF EXPERIENCE AND SOME CHALLENGES OF THE TODAY HUMANITIES—NEW PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

Phenomenology is a philosophical project with vast potential, mainly methodological one, which has been not exploited in full until now. It is not limited to 20thcentury hermeneutics based on Heidegger’s views, nor to analytically founded contemporary investigations on language. Today this potential is revealed when the humanities and social studies face new challenges requiring new interpretations of human experience. Here transcendental phenomenology—as a theory of experience from the living perspective based on the intentional-genetic method—offers new research possibilities.

Keywords: transcendental phenomenology, intentional experience, experiential living perspective, motivation, developmental process.  

 

 

 

Rafał Michalski

Instytut Filozofii UMK, Fosa Staromiejska 1, 87-100 Toruń.

E-mail: metasis@umk.pl  

 

WAS ARNOLD GEHLEN A NATURALISTIC REDUCTIONIST?

 

ABSTRACT

The article takes up a polemic with an accusation of naturalist reductionism, which allegedly constitutes the philosophical anthropology of Arnold Gehlen. In the first section of the article I will analyze the legitimacy of the charge of reductionism in the context of Gehlen’s considerations on human nature, in turn the subjcekt of the second part will be the concept of nature as an objective world, while the third and fourth sections will deal with issues concerning morality (3) and culture and human consciousness (4) in view of the allegation of the naturalism of his anthropological project. The author argues that Gehlen’s anthropology is aimed at integrating the results of the biological and social sciences, but he derives philosophical implications from them on such a level of generality that they go beyond the competence of specific sciences. Their findings acquire a universal meaning in his concept within the framework of a system of philosophical categories describing man as a whole project of nature. Gehlen rejects all attempts to create a general human theory on the basis of comparative studies that derive the property of the human condition from the animal world. Gehlen’s anthropobiology resigns from the concept of man’s nature in the biological sense, i.e. as a set of evolutionarily determined morphological, physiological and behavioral features, he also abandons the objectiveist concept of “external nature” as an ontical area independent of cultural mediation. Language, consciousness and culture are the result of processes compensating for biological deficits, and at the same time they represent the area of competence and values that are autonomous and autotelic, and therefore completely independent of biological conditions.

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, naturalistic reductionism, philosophical anthropology, culture, language, morality, institutions.    

 

 

 

Marcin Urbaniak

Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków.

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com  

 

A VIEW ON HUMAN HERMENEUTIC CAPABILITIES FROM THE ZOOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to present the philosophical idea of origin of human capability to interpret and understand meanings. I am inspired by the results of contemporary cognitive and natural sciences as well as psychology. In view of those sciences one can defy hermeneutical concepts, which are embedded in the modern anthropocentric tradition. I would like to explain the ontological status of so-called hermeneutical skills in a naturalized form that does not avoid the continuous gradation of subject’s structures or abilities without falling into trivial reductionism. I demonstrate that the comprehensive formation of understanding processes is reserved for particular groups of human beings. However, it can be justified that different animal species and direct human ancestors are equipped with some elements of hermeneutical skills. These skills are a ground of the notion of Dasein. This paper begins my reflection on the natural history of human understanding and on polemics with anthropocentric philosophical hermeneutics. The basic aim of this work is to closely consider the hypothesis which states that the fundamental aspect of human existence (primordial modes) such as comprehension, attuning towards meanings or being-in-the-world can be grasped as natural adaptations of human and non-human organisms.

Keywords: hermeneutics, understanding, interpretation, evolution, sense, symbol.  

 

 

 

Jarosław Mrozek

Instytut Filozofii, Socjologii i Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Jana Bażyńskiego 8, 80-309 Gdańsk.

E-mail: filjam@ug.edu.pl   

 

IS THERE A CHANGE IN THE CRITERIA OF BEING A SCIENCE IN CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS?

 

ABSTRACT

The contemporary physical and cosmological theories confront philosophers and methodologists with a problem of scientific character of the considered ideas. It is mainly connected with the issue of their empirical testing. We know that many conceptions of contemporary physics, such as the conceptions of superstrings or of multiverse, have not been confirmed by even a single observation or experiment. In this situation there appear attempts to “weaken” methodological requirements imposed on theories to consider them as scientific after all. The challenge that physicists, philosophers and methodologists face is to attempt to define a feasible, possible to perform, non-empirical verification procedure in the case when these theories postulate the existence of basically non-observable areas of reality.

Keywords: testability; falsifiability; demarcation criteria; Popper; Bayesian methods; non-empirical theory confirmation.  

 

 

 

Adam Krawiec, Marek Szydłowski, Paweł Tambor

Adam Krawiec  

Instytut Ekonomii i Zarządzania, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Łojasiewicza 4, 30–348 Kraków.

E-mail: adam.krawiec@uj.edu.pl

Marek Szydłowski  

Centrum Układów Złożonych, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, ul. Orla 171, 30–244 Kraków.

E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl

Paweł Tambor  

Wydział Teologii, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Al. Racławickie 14, Kolegium Jana Pawła II, skr. poczt. 129, 20-950 Lublin.

E-mail: pawel.tambor@kul.lublin.pl  

 

THE ONTOLOGICAL AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF COSMOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ON THE UNIVERSE

 

ABSTRACT

We discuss the specificity of modern cosmology understood as the physics of the Universe. We can treat cosmology as specific because of its object, i.e. the physical Universe is specific, as well as the ways of acquiring the knowledge about the Universe are specific. We argue that the specific and, in some sense, unique methodological nature of modern cosmology compared to physics is not controversial, as it is claimed among others by Helge Kragh. In our view this specificity is natural of cosmology itself and has its foundations in: 1) the asymmetry of prediction (which favors retrognosis), 2) the temporal nature of observations applied in cosmological investigations, 3) the horizon problem and the relevance of initial conditions for cosmological evolution.

Keywords: modern cosmology, philosophy of science, methodological specificity of cosmology, the evolution of the Universe.   

 

 

 

Marek Gurba

Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University, Grodzka 52, Kraków.

E-mail: marek.gurba@doctoral.uj.edu.pl  

 

ON NICHOLAS RESCHER’S ORIENTATIONAL PLURALISM IN METAPHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The article discusses Nicholas Rescher’s metaphilosophical view of orientational pluralism. In his essay Philosophical Disagreement: An Essay towards Orientational Pluralism in Metaphilosophy Rescher explains a substantial difference between philosophy and science—namely, that philosophers—differently than scientists— continuously propose and undermine various solutions to the same old problems. In philosophy it is difficult to find any consensus or convergence of theories. According to Rescher, this pluralism of theoretical positions is caused by holding by philosophers different sets and hierarchies of cognitive values, i.e. methodological orientations. These orientations are chosen in virtue of some practical postulates, they are of axiological, normative, but not strictly theoretical character. Different methodological orientations yield different evaluations of philosophical theses and arguments. This article shows that Rescher’s account does not determine clearly acceptable cognitive values. If there are no clear criteria of evaluation of methodological orientations, then the described view seems to be identical to relativism adopting the everything goes rule. In addition, accepting orientational pluralism it is hard to avoid the conclusion that discussions between various philosophical schools are futile or can be reduced to non-rational persuasion.

Keywords: metaphilosophy, Nicholas Rescher, relativism, methodology of philosophy, orientational pluralism.  

 

 

 

Karolina Owczarek

Instytut Filozofii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-001 Warszawa.

E-mail: karolina.m.owczarek@gmail.com  

 

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF MIND ON THE BASIS OF STANISŁAW LEM’S DIALOGUES

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to present Lem’s philosophy of mind. The author bases it on Dialogues — the first Lem’s philosophical essays published in 1957. It is emphasized that at that time Lem was influenced by cybernetics. I present connections between cybernetics and Lem's theory. He considered such issues as: consciousness, machine consciousness, personal identity. What is more, he investigated if immortality was available to human. I reconstruct his conception of mind and its anthropological and ontological consequences.

Keywords: Lem, philosophy of mind, mind uploading, cybernetics, personal identity, consciousness.  

 

 

 

Andrzej Bronk, Monika Walczak

Andrzej Bronk  

Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin.

E-mail: bronk@kul.lublin.pl

Monika Walczak

Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Aleje Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin.

E-mail: aktor@kul.pl  

 

STANISŁAW KAMIŃSKI’S METHODOLOGICAL OPTIONS

 

ABSTRACT

Stanisław Kamiński (1919–1986) was a philosopher, philosopher of science and historian of science. His all academic carrier was pursuing at the Catholic University in Lublin (KUL). The main interests of Kamiński was the history of science and logic, general and special methodology, methodology of philosophy and (medieval) semiotics. He himself saw his main achievements in the domain of the theory of science and the methodology of classical philosophy, especially in the studies of the method and language of metaphysics. He gave a methodological description of general metaphysics, philosophical anthropology, ethics, philosophy of religion, philosophy of history and studies on religion (religiology). He investigated the beginnings of the mathematical induction in the Middle Ages and in modern times, the modern history of the theory of definition, theory of argumentation (reasoning), the structure and the evolution of scientific theory, deductive method, the achievements of logic and philosophy in Poland. A characteristic feature of Kamiński's philosophical and methodological approach was a specific historicism, consisting of referring to the heritage of the past and at the same time to the latest achievements in logic and philosophy of science. He had a broad concept of knowledge and was a maximalist both in raising questions and in giving answers. In accordance with classical philosophy he saw the substance of person as ens rationale, a being realizing himself in a disinterested search for a theoretical truth, whose highest expression is philosophy. He stressed the epistemological and methodological plurality of knowledge, distinguished and investigated material and formal parts of knowledge. He also distinguished—besides commonsense knowledge—the scientific, philosophical and theological knowledge, nonreducible each to other. At the top he set sapiential knowledge which is much more than a simple generalization of all particular kinds of knowledge. Kamiński derived his understanding of science from contemporary as well as classical philosophy. He determined the nature of science from the point view of its subject matter, aims, methods, logical structure and genesis. The question of what science was for him a philosophical question, presupposing an appropriate understanding of the nature of the world. Kamiński opted for a pluralistic approach to the world: the principal object of science is the objective world, subjective states of man and products of his mind and language. The best diagnostic test of the scientific character of science is the scientific method. Kamiński assumes here pluralism: different subject matter and different goals of scientific cognition require different research strategies and types of cognitive procedures. He also accepts an antinaturalistic position in the humanities which he regards as methodologically autonomous in regard to natural sciences. The publications of S. Kamiński include over 350 positions. During his life three books have been published: Georgonne'a teoria definicji [Georgonne's Theory of Definition], Lublin 1958; Pojęcie nauki i klasyfikacja nauk [Concept of Science and Classification of Sciences], Lublin 1961, 19813; and (together with M. A. Krąpiec) Z teorii i metodologii metafizyki [On the Theory and Methodology of Metaphysics], Lublin 1962. After his death five volumes of Collected Papers have been published: vol. I: Jak filozofować? [How to Philosophize? Studies in Methodology of Classical Philosophy], edited by Tadeusz Szubka, Lublin 1989; vol. II: Filozofia i metoda. Studia z dziejów metod filozofowania [Philosophy and Method. Studies from the History of the Method of Philosophizing], edited by Józef Herbut, Lublin 1993; vol. III: Metoda i język. Studia z semiotyki i metodologii nauk [Method and Language. Studies in Semiotics and Philosophy of Science], edited by Urszula Żegleń, Lublin 1994; vol. IV: Nauka i metoda. Pojęcie nauki i klasyfikacja nauk [Science and Method. Concept of Science and Classification of Sciences], edited by Andrzej Bronk, Lublin 1992); vol. V: Światopogląd – Religia – Teologia [Worldview – Religion – Theology], edited by Monika Walczak and Andrzej Bronk, Lublin 1998.

Keywords: definition of science, classification of sciences, ethics of science, humanities and natural sciences, methodology, philosophy, philosophy of science, rationality of science, science, scientific method, Stanisław Kamiński, theology, theory of science.  

 

 

 

Józef Dębowski

Instytut Filozofii, Wydział Humanistyczny Uniwersytetu Warmińsko- Mazurskiego w Olsztynie, ul. Obitza 1, 10-725 Olsztyn.

E-mail: jozef.debowski@uwm.edu.pl  

 

THE DISPUTE ON THE SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF PHILOSOPHY. ON ZDZISŁAW CACKOWSKI’S DISCUSSION WITH PHENEMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I analytically reconstruct Zdzisław Cackowski’s basic ways of the understanding character of philosophy and science. I emphasize that according to Cackowski philosophy is a science (a nomothetic one) but simultaneously it is the most general science. Philosophy, like other sciences, satisfies conditions and criteria of being science. Besides its cognitive function, philosophy, like other sciences, plays practical functions; especially it is a basis of worldviews and ideologies. According to Cackowski, the specific character of philosophy arises from its universalistic aspirations and consists in a very high level of generality of discovered principles; those principles refer to the objective reality and knowledge on it. The specificity of philosophy also consists in—according to Cackowski—revealing the nature of qualitative jumps between basic segments of the real world, e.g. between quantum objects and macroscopic ones, between non-organic and organic nature; between neuronal processes and mind process etc. However, tending to not break the link between philosophy and reality, Cackowski grounds philosophical synthesis in scientific discoveries, results, and scientific praxis. Cackowski’s way of understanding of philosophy is, on the one hand, close to positivistic, scientific and Marxist concepts of philosophy, and on the other hand, it is opposite to the phenomenological concept of philosophy. Cackowski’s reservations and objections to the phenomenological project of philosophical investigations appear continuously in his works (they change only slightly in the course of time), and they refer to: (1) the scope and the meaning of the autonomy of sciences, (2) the rule of assumptionless standpoint (regardless of the level of its radicalism), (3) Husserl’s “rule of the all rules” as a basic methodological principle, (4) the phenomenological concept of direct experience, (5) the possibility and the range of eidetic knowledge, (6) the idea of transcendentalism and the concept of pure consciousness, (7) the essential fundamental position, motivated by Descartes’s ideas and irrational longing to discover the metaphysical and epistemological absolute.

Keywords: philosophy, science, phenomenology, Marxist philosophy, epistemology, reality, action, acquisition, knowledge, empiricism, inductionism, positivism, scientism, praxism, assumptionlessness (Voraussetzungslosigkeit, Vorurteilslosigkeit), the rule of assumptionlessness (das Prinzip der Voraussetzungslosigkeit), transcendentalism, eidetism, direct experience.  

 

 

 

Anna Michalska

Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN, ul. Nowy Świat, 00-330 Warszawa.

E-mail: michalskanna@gmail.com  

 

STEFAN AMSTERDAMSKI’S CONCEPTION OF IDEAL OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: TOWARDS A NEW CONCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

The conception of ideals of science was Stefan Amsterdamski’s contribution to the dispute about scientific rationality. In assuming that scientific method is not an ahistorical phenomenon, and comes with rather strong normative pressupositions, Amsterdamski sides with Thomas Kuhn in his debate with Karl Popper and the latter’s followers and supporters. Essentially, however, Amsterdamski is a Popperian; he is intent on enlarging the scope of critical analysis by applying it to what he calls the modern ideal of science. His works, especially the monograph Pomiędzy historią a metodą [Between History and Method] are an attempt to safeguard the status of philosophy of science a normative instance with respect to ideals of science. In the paper I offer a reconstruction of Amsterdamski’s conception as well as scrutinize the relationship between his expressed philosophic goals and methods he employed in order to attain these goals. I indicate what I find most problematic in the concept of ideal of science and suggest an alternative view on the problems as raised by Amsterdamski. I argue that Amsterdamski’s work warrants an attempt at the formulation of a new conception of subject of science which would provide guidelines for a proper critique of modern science.

Keywords: ideals of science, scientific rationality, history of science, Stefan Amsterdamski, subject of science.  

 

 

 

Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska

IF WFiS UMCS w Lublinie, Plac Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 4, 20–031 Lublin.

E-mail: mkuszyk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl  

 

FLORIAN ZNANIECKI ON SCIENCE. THE ONTO-EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

 

ABSTRACT

I include Florian Znaniecki’s understanding of cultural sciences into a wider philosophical project which I call social onto-epistemology. The main aim of the paper is to reconstruct Znaniecki’s philosophy as a research effort to set the foundation of social sciences; the “foundation” is meant here as it is meant in 19th philosophical fundamentalism, i.e. as the search for the basis of legitimisation of social sciences. Despite of the non-originality of this aim, the measures and modes of its application in Znaniecki’s approach were fruitful. The onto-epistemological approach avoids Cartesian and Kantian dualisms and, pre-eminently, the monosubjective understanding of the cognitive subject. The graduation of realness with regard to the object of social science, objectivity as belonging to many systems of cultural objects are main invention on this path. The main onto-epistemological premise of Znaniecki’s strategy is as follows: Human knowledge is deeply rooted in human social existence, and the human mode of existence, in turn, contains necessarily and essentially an epistemic component.

Keywords: Znaniecki, onto-epistemology, science, social sciences.  

 

 

 

Grzegorz Pyszczek

Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Warszawie Wydział Stosowanych Nauk Społecznych, Ul. Szczęśliwicka 40, 02–353 Warszawa.

E-mail: gpyszczek@poczta.onet.pl  

 

THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE SAGE. ON FLORIAN ZNANIECKI’S CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

The article concerns Florian Znaniecki’s problem of social role of the sage. The first part of the article presents the concept of social role of the sage in the context of other social roles of scholars. In the second part, Znaniecki’s view is confronted with the contemporary social and scientific realities.

Keywords: Florian Znaniecki, sage, wisdom, social role of the man of knowledge.   

 

 

 

Marta Błaszczyńska

Szkoła Nauk Społecznych, przy Instytucie Filozofii i Socjologii PAN, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00–330 Warszawa.

E-mail: marta.blaszczynska@hotmail.co.uk  

 

ARNOLD GEHLEN’S MAN, PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOME QUESTIONS ASKED DBY CONTEMPORARY READERS

 

ABSTRACT

I examine the key elements of Arnold Gehlen’s concept of human being as it is presented in his book Man, His Nature and Place in the World. I analyze his attempt to interpret the human as a whole and to define humanity as a species which is “lacking” and whose acts must compensate for its “primitive” traits. I briefly present selected questions and difficulties that might be posed by the contemporary reader upon learning about Gehlen’s understanding of the human being and his vision of philosophical anthropology, its aims and methodology.

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, philosophical anthropology, German philosophy, human nature.  

 

 

 

Grzegorz Smoliński

Instytut Socjologii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Koszarowa 3, 52–007 Wrocław afiliacja.

E-mail: grzegorz.smolinski@uwr.edu.pl  

 

SCIENCE AND ITS CRITIQUE: THE CONTEXT OF ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

The article starts with the considerations presented by Małgorzata Czarnocka in her paper O krytyce nauki [On a Critique of Science] (Czarnocka 2017) in order to consider the critical potential of dualism—the ideal of science—practice of science. These considerations are compared with the Actor-Network Theory, which, on the one hand, in its theses about science approaches to the image criticized by Czarnocka, but, on the other hand, retains a similar critical potential. This is despite the fact that ANT this theory programmatically rejects the duality ideal–praxis. Presented considerations focus on designating common points and differences between the dualistic and non-dualistic approaches in the context of Czarnocka’s article.

Keywords: dualism, non-dualism, criticism of science, Latour, Actor-Network Theory.   

Table of Contens 6/2018

FILOZOFIA I NAUKA
Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne
Tom 6, 2018


Od RedakcjiO VI tomie czasopisma FILOZOFIA I NAUKA. Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne (s. 5)


I. Studia i rozprawy
Ignacy S. FiutCzy możliwy jest „czwarty świat” w modelu EE Karla R. Poppera? (s. 9)
Stanisław CzerniakJürgen Mittelstrass: nauki humanistyczne w świetle idei jedności nauki (s. 27)
Małgorzata CzarnockaJak nauka jest uniwersalna? (s. 51)
Marek SuwaraBiologiczno-informatyczna analogia w wyjaśnianiu rozwoju nauki i kultury (s. 75)
Jagna BrudzińskaFenomenologia jako teoria doświadczenia a wyzwania współczesnej humanistyki – nowe perspektywy w badaniach nad człowiekiem (s. 85)
Rafał MichalskiCzy Arnold Gehlen był naturalistycznym redukcjonistą? (s. 97)
Marcin UrbaniakSpojrzenie na zdolności hermeneutyczne człowieka z perspektywy zoologicznej (s. 117)
Jarosław MrozekCzy zmiana kryteriów naukowości we współczesnej fizyce teoretycznej? (s. 133)
Adam Krawiec, Marek Szydłowski, Paweł TamborSwoistość ontologiczna i epistemologiczna kosmologii jako nauki o wszechświecie (s. 149)
Marek GurbaOn Nicholas Rescher’s Orientational Pluralism in Metaphilosophy (s. 175)
Karolina OwczarekRozważania o filozofii umysłu na podstawie Dialogów Stanisława Lema (s. 181)


POLSCY MYŚLICIELE O NAUCE
Blok tematyczny pod redakcją Marioli Kuszyk-Bytniewskiej


Mariola Kuszyk-BytniewskaPolscy myśliciele o nauce (s. 197)
Andrzej Bronk, Monika WalczakStanisława Kamińskiego opcje metodologiczne (s. 199)
Józef DębowskiSpór o naukowość filozofii. O Zdzisława Cackowskiego dyskusji z fenomenologią (s. 231)

Anna MichalskaStefana Amsterdamskiego pojęcie ideału wiedzy naukowej: w stronę nowej koncepcji podmiotu nauki (s. 251)
Mariola Kuszyk-BytniewskaFlorian Znaniecki o nauce. Perspektywa ontoepistemologiczna (s. 273)
Grzegorz PyszczekSpołeczna rola mędrca. Wokół koncepcji Floriana Znanieckiego (s. 283)


II. Polemiki i dyskusje
Marta BłaszczyńskaCzłowiek i antropologia filozoficzna Arnolda Gehlena a pytania współczesnych czytelników (s. 297)
Grzegorz SmolińskiNauka i jej krytyka: kontekst teorii aktora-sieci (s. 307)

Table of Contens 5/2017

FILOZOFIA I NAUKA
Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne
Tom 5, 2017

 

O V tomie czasopisma FILOZOFIA I NAUKA. Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne (s. 5)

 

I. Rozdział książki Moralbewußtsein und kommunikatives Handeln Jürgena Habermasa

Filozofia jako instancja rezerwująca niektóre miejsca dla nauk i interpretująca kulturę w jej całości (s. 11)

 

II. Studia i rozprawy

 

ORGANIZM, CIAŁO, TOŻSAMOŚĆ, TECHNIKA

blok tematyczny pod redakcją Ewy Nowak

 

Ewa NowakOrganizm, ciało, tożsamość, technika (s. 27)

Ewa Nowak, Roberto Franzini TibaldeoOrganizm i wolność. Filozofia życia i etyka nauk o życiu (s. 29)

Małgorzata Leśniewska, Piotr LeśniewskiCiało „nienormalne”. O roli anomalii w rozwoju nauk biologicznych (s. 49)

Ewa Nowak„Ustrój cielesny” w doświadczeniu podmiotowym i międzypodmiotowym: zrozumieć fenomen allotransplantacji (s. 61)

Filip BardzińskiO holistycznym modelu ludzkiej natury u Maine de Birana i Michela Henry (s. 89)

Paweł CiniewskiAmbiwalencja transhumanizmu wobec cielesności (s. 105)

Jonasz PawlaczykJaka przyszłość dla cielesności? (s. 117)

 

FILOZOFIA NAUK SPOŁECZNYCH – TEORIA I PRAKTYKA

blok tematyczny pod redakcją Marioli Kuszyk-Bytniewskiej

 

Mariola Kuszyk-BytniewskaFilozofia nauk społecznych – teoria i praktyka. Kłopoty to nasza specjalność (s. 127)

Tomasz BurdzikDrapieżne czasopisma jako przykład nieetycznego publikowania (s. 131)

Mateusz SzymczychaPoza tekstem – o antropologii historyczno-kulturowej Christopha Wulfa (s. 151)

Paweł BytniewskiPrzeszłość i przyszłość antropologii kulturowej (s. 159)

Paweł UrbańskiJean Jacques Rousseau: oświecenie a sobą-pisanie (s. 169)

Mariola Kuszyk-BytniewskaObiektywność a obiektywizacja w naukach społecznych (s. 187)

* * *

Małgorzata CzarnockaO krytyce nauki (s. 197)

Ignacy S. FiutWiedza w ujęciu realizmu ewolucyjnego Bolesława Józefa Gaweckiego (s. 217)

Marcin UrbaniakWiedza w ujęciu determinizmu memetycznego (s. 237)

Marcin UrbaniakDlaczego zwierzęta coś wiedzą? Zarys socjobiologicznej koncepcji wiedzy (s. 253)

Mariusz MazurekDwa typy modeli w nauce a problem odkrycia i zagadnienie reprezentacji (s. 271)

Andrzej WilkAbsolutyzm logiczny a ontologia (s. 289)

Józef L. KrakowiakAndrzeja Grzegorczyka endocentryczne „relacje ze sobą” jako związki z wartościami, kulturą czy życiem w ogóle (s. 299)

Paweł ZagożdżonZetknięcie dwóch paradygmatów – religijny psychiatra (s. 311)

Magdalena ŁataObraz Melancholia Jacka Malczewskiego w kontekście teorii lingwistyki kognitywnej (s. 323)

5/2017

Ewa Nowak, Roberto Franzini Tibaldeo

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: ewanowak@amu.edu.pl

Université Catholique de Louvain, Place de l’Université 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgia

E-mail: roberto.franzini@uclouvain.be  

 

ORGANISM AND FREEDOM. PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE AND ETHICS OF LIFE SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

The authors revisit the claims of Hans Jonas’s postdualistic ontology of a living being. Life’s immanent potentialities evolve, until the human being develops her technologies, freedom, reason, and, finally, the responsibility to restrain own excessive usage of technologies and protect her open-ended potentialities. The paper relies on the ideas described in Organism and Freedom, Jonas's magnum opus in his own eyes.

Keywords: Hans Jonas, living being, organism, postdualistic ontology, teleology, evolution, freedom, responsibility, technology, risk, ethics, philosophy, science.  

 

 

 

Małgorzata Leśniewska, Piotr Leśniewski  

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: malgorzata.lesniewska@amu.edu.pl

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: grus@amu.edu.pl  

 

“NON-NORMAL BODY.” ON THE ROLE OF ANOMALY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

In recent years a number of anomalies in specimens of the species Haplophilus subterraneus (Shaw, 1789) in the class Chilopoda were discovered. This particular case of the deformed body provokes to reinterpretation of the history and evolution of cultural attitudes towards the body affected by malformations. In this paper we present changes of perceptions, attitudes and interpretations of anomalous forms— from surprise or horror to an interpretation which results in a great progress in science and in explanations of many elements of developmental processes and evolution of organisms.

Keywords: anomaly, evolution, development, evo-devo.   

 

 

 

Ewa Nowak

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: ewanowak@amu.edu.pl   

 

“BODILY CONSTITUTION” IN SUBJECTIVE AND INTERSUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE: APPROACHING THE PHENOMENON OF ALLOTRANSPLANTATION

 

ABSTRACT

The paper examines phenomenological concepts of body and psychosomatic identity to explain the facial allotransplant experience. The first three sections show how did the concept of own body/embodiment evolve in philosophy, the last three – how body had been re–opened to the transcorporeality. The author undertakes efforts to balance an ontological, nonreductionistic and postdualistic account which could be shared across the boundaries between life sciences and humanities. Facial allograft phenomenon and the redefinition of personal somatic identity are considered in both disciplines.

Keywords: organism, body, somatic identity, intercorporeality, allotransplant, faciality, phenomenology, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Schmitz, Jonas, postdualism.

 

 

 

Filip Bardziński  

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: fmbardzinski@gmail.com  

 

ON MAINE DE BIRAN’S AND MICHEL HENRY’S HOLISTIC MODEL OF HUMAN NATURE

 

ABSTRACT

The article proposes a holistic model of human nature, based on philosophy and anthropology of Maine de Biran, and on Michel Henry’s phenomenology of body.

Keywords: Maine de Biran, Michel Henry, systemic theory of health, biological recductionism, holism.  

 

 

 

Paweł Ciniewski

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: lorayanz@gmail.com  

 

TRANSHUMANISM’S AMBIVALENT VIEW TOWARDS CORPOREITY

 

ABSTRACT

The article examines the relation between transhumanism and the notion of corporeity. The author presents six approaches to corporeity according to Tom Ziemke, including those which are favorable to the transhumanist vision of the future. Then the author examines the role of the human body in the transhumanist project of the posthuman. In the last, central section it is argued that transhumanism displays an ambivalent view towards corporeity.

Keywords: transhumanism, ambivalence, corporeity, organismoid embodiment, organismic embodiment.

 

 

 

Jonasz Pawlaczyk

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: jonaszpawlaczyk@wp.pl  

 

WHAT FUTURE FOR CORPOREALITY?

 

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the potentialities of body’s technological enhancement. It refers to Juan Enriquez who advocated a need for human body transformations and benefits resulting from them for individuals and the whole humanity. Should the "standard" biological embodiment be enhanced if a favorable opportunity is at our disposal? The importance of that question increases when facing a colonization of another planets in case of a planetary disaster. According to Enriquez, it would be unethical not to modify the human body. The article examines some lacks in Enriquez’ reasoning, including the lack of reflection towards the subjectivity of radically modified human body.

Keywords: evolving body, technology, future, bionics, Juan Enriquez.  

 

 

 

Tomasz Burdzik

Affiliation: Pontifical University of John Paul II in Cracow, Kanoniczna 9/203, 31–069 Cracow

E-mail: tomasz.burdzik@gmail.com  

 

PREDATORY JOURNALS AS AN EXAMPLE OF UNETHICAL PUBLISHING

 

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the phenomenon of predatory journals, the characteristics of predatory journals, including spamming and using fake metrics, and the problems they cause for science. Predatory journals often fail to properly manage peer review, allowing pseudo-science to be published dressed up as authentic science. Predatory journals frequently have imaginary editorial boards, do not operate any quality control, are unclear about payment requirements and about ownership or location, include plagiarised content. Predatory publishers generally behave unethically. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development and how researchers can avoid becoming victimized by them.

Keywords: predatory journals; publication ethics; predatory publishers.  

 

 

 

Mateusz Szymczycha  

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mszymczycha@poczta.onet.pl

 

BEYOND TEXT—ON CHRISTOPH WULF’S HISTORICAL-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The article is a summary of the key theoretical inspirations and theses of historical- cultural anthropology as presented in Christoph Wulf’s book Anthropology. History – Culture – Philosophy and an attempt to place the views on the analogy between culture and text—as well as on the relationship between thought, language and image—advocated therein in a broader theoretical context.

Keywords: historical-cultural anthropology, the body in culture, semiotics.

 

 

 

Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland

E-mail: pbytniewski@tlen.pl

 

THE PAST AND FUTURE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

We recognize cultures in differences, while we perceive human beings through the similarities between them. It is a paradox that makes cultural anthropology difficult for us, because its ethos and methods make pressure for us to change the way of perception our own social environment. Thus, as a result, cultural anthropology produces and develops quite peculiar experience of itself, which J. J. Rousseau named sentiment d’existence. According to C. Lévi-Strauss, Rousseau is the father of ethnology, because he was the first European intellectual who understood that alienation in relation to the Same is the price at we have to pay for getting to know the Other. What, for the understanding of the West, is the meaning of the disappearance of ethno-worlds? How blurring of ethno-diversity of the world shaped not only the past and the future of cultural anthropology, but an understanding of the past and the future of culture, from which it is derived? Cultural anthropology, or as it is called in Britain, social anthropology, pervades a kind of anxiety about its cognitive status. Cultural anthropology is not sure whether its interest in exotic cultures is not already late, still suspects that its research is not on time. Well reflects this contemporary condition of cultural anthropology the book by Alan Barnard entitled History and Theory in Anthropology. In fact, the book is a combination of an academic discussion of the history of the discipline with the excursus towards new areas of exploration of anthropological instigated by perception of differences, still active. This means the return in the practices of research and writing practices of anthropologists to looking from a distance on the social worlds that are pretty close. The paper discusses problems and opinion entered upon in mentioned book.

Keywords: culture, history of cultural anthropology, J.J. Rousseau, C. Lévi- Strauss, A. Barnard.

 

 

 

Paweł Urbański

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

E-mail: paziu1984@wp.pl  

 

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU: ENLIGHTENMENT AND WRITING BY HIMSELF

 

ABSTRACT

The present paper aims at presenting Jean Jacques Rousseau as an anthropologist of modernity. I argue that between his Confessions and other works concerning origins of the social order there is an inner connection which determined his mode of the social world knowing. I propose to define this mode by use of the contemporary concept of socially situated cognition. The epistemological restriction of situated cognition is an ontological opportunity to grasp the complexity of the social world without reducing it to the object as a result of synthetic capabilities of enlightened reason. Thus the main problem of Confessions can be read as the question: What kind of inner work researcher should perform to achieve the self-ruling position which enables him to look at the social world from an uninvolved point of view? I claim that Rousseau in Confessions as well as in other his works makes the same work. On the one hand, he reconstructs his own social situation as a scholar what makes him a contemporary anthropologist who penetrates mentally numerous social worlds. On the other hand, he also writes as an enlightened lawmaker, who proposes a new social participation as the universal form of political community. Therefore the craft of writing of confessions, memories, etc. becomes a simple tool which enables the relentless process of self-reference on practical and theoretical levels of science, especially social science.

Keywords: Enlightenment, social science, writing, situated cognition.  

 

 

 

Mariola Kuszyk-Bytniewska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland

E-mail: mkuszykbyt@gmail.com  

 

OBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIFICATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

ABSTRACT

Objectivity is a category which has double reference: to cognition, as its valuable trait, and to being, as a very existence of what is assumed as real. Nonetheless, modern concept of objectivity lean toward epistemological interpretation and is accommodate to requirements of modern natural science, but not to needs of social sciences. Thus, in a ground of natural sciences, objectivity is equating with methodologically carrying neutralization of subjectivity. This received view becomes more complicated as social sciences allowed to speak. An exposure of socially determined traits of objectivity is a point of complication in a history of its interpretation, because social sciences are entangled with a double reference mentioned above. As a result, essential question emerged: a problem of relation between objectivity and objectification as a practical process of realisation. Interdependence of objectivity and objectification puts into social theory an onto-epistemological characterisation of both qualification. They participate in the problematisation of a concept of social reality to the same extent. The main purpose of paper is to show and discuss the problem. The conclusion is intended to indicate special status of objectivity in social sciences.

Keywords: objectivity, objectification, social sciences, epistemocentrism.  

 

 

 

Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

ON THE CRITICISM OF SCIENCE

 

ABSTRACT

I analyse the contemporary negative attitude toward science—common both in philosophy and beyond it, in intellectual milieus—and demonstrate, by basing on the distinction ideal–praxis of science, that the objections against science in philosophy are doubtful and one-sided. Especially doubtful, deforming the image of science are two main arguments: on instrumentalising reason by science and on the oppressive role of science in the today human world. I claim that the today increasing gap between the ideal of science and its today praxis is an essential problem of the contemporary science and the human world.

Keywords: critics of science, ideal of science, praxis of science, The Frankfurt School, postmodernism, instrumental reason, social role of science.

 

 

 

Ignacy S. Fiut  

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland

Email: isf1949@o2.pl i isfiut@agh.edu.pl  

 

KNOWLEDGE IN TERMS OF EVOLUTIONARY REALISM OF BOLESLAW JÓZEF GAWECKI

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the views of a Polish philosopher Bolesław Józef Gawecki (1889–1984) related to his concept of evolutionary realism, which plays a key role in his evolutionary concept of knowledge. The philosopher justifies the development of the natural and social sciences in the framework of the so-called “metaphysical systemat.” He considers knowledge a form of adaptation of the evolving human subject of cognition to the evolving environment of its life and activity. These views are an explication of positivist philosophy, especially empiriocriticism in the spirit of critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

Keywords: Bolesław Gawecki, evolutionary conception of knowledge, evolutionary realism, metaphysical systemat, Immanuel Kant.

 

 

  

Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com   

 

KNOWLEDGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MEMETIC DETERMINISM

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to overcome some theoretical limitations as regards understanding and explanation of the knowledge notion. I present the memetic perspective of the issue of knowledge. The main aim is to deepen the analysis of knowledge phenomenon and to enrich previous knowledge notion with crossing, natural and semiotical points of view. The next aim is to try to answer the question about the nature of knowledge, the way of knowledge existence and the area of occurrence of knowledge. Some main attributes of memes, their hallmarks, basic functions and possible classification are examined. I also discuss the actions of memetic mechanisms of knowledge: some forms of knowledge externalisation; knowledge proliferation; cooperation and competition of information. At the end of the article there are summative reflections and author’s conclusions.

Keywords: memes, memetics, evolution, procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge.

 

 

 

Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

E-mail: murbaniak78@gmail.com  

 

WHY ANIMALS KNOW ANYTHING? AN OUTLINE OF THE SOCIOBIOLOGICAL IDEA OF KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

The article reconstructs the notion of knowledge in the sociobiological perspective. This perspective focuses on some selected, representative views, which grasp the phenomenon of knowledge in the context of logotaxis, neophilia and intentionality phenomena and the so-called theory of mind. One of basic aims of the so chosen context is the impeachment of the notion of knowledge subject that functions within traditional epistemology or philosophical anthropology, and the extending of the influence of sociobiological idea of cognition and knowledge in contemporary philosophy. The paper includes introductory methodological remarks, the analysis of logotaxis as a natural tendency to search and absorb some information, the analysis of neophilia as a natural predisposition to permanent exploratory behaviours; a critical discussion on the occurrence of knowledge phenomenon and metacognition among non-human animals; and a recapitulation of the considerations.

Keywords: sociobiology, logotaxis, neophilia, evolution, knowing-that, knowing- how.

 

 

 

Mariusz Mazurek  

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: mariuszmazure@o2.pl

 

TWO TYPES OF MODELS IN SCIENCE AND PROBLEM OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY AND ISSUES OF REPRESENTATION

 

ABSTRACT

In the article the models which are reconstructed in the philosophy of science from the praxis of science are divided into two main types: 1) analogue- and metaphor- based models and 2) representational models. I examine functions of the models of both the types, and demonstrate that the models of type 1) are used in science as instruments of acquiring new knowledge on the basis of a knowledge accepted earlier; and models of type 2) are used to create cognitive “images” of reality. I demonstrate that in the philosophy of science the problem areas generated by two functions of models are entirely isolated one from another. Whereas they are nonseparably linked one to another. I postulate the necessity of linking them in one unified conception of models, and then in one conception of science. Therefore such a conception of models is needed which will explain how models play two functions simultaneously, i.e. how they function in the context of discovery and how they represent reality.

Keywords: model, analogy, metaphor, representation.

 

 

 

Andrzej Wilk

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: awilk@ifispan.waw.pl  

 

ABSOLUTISM AND ONTOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The text considers the link between logic and ontology in the context of the problem of future truth. The main issue examined in this paper is the following one: the classical logic is strongly insensitive to the ontological determinism-indeterminism problem.

Keywords: determinism, indeterminism, future truth, Twardowski, Kotarbiński, Łukasiewicz, Leśniewski, Quine, Davidson, von Wright.

 

 

 

Józef L. Krakowiak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, WSEZiNS, Łódź Poland

E-mail: j.k.l@wp.pl

 

ANDRZEJ GRZEGORCZYK’S ENDOCENTRIC RELATIONS WITH HIMSELF AS CONNECTIONS WITH VALUES, CULTURE AND LIFE IN GENERAL

 

ABSTRACT

Andrzej Grzegorczyk’s imperative “to give evidence to the internally lived truth” is close to personalistic Christian existentialism which does not only tend to externalise the authentic experiences of I, but also—as the ancient philosophers of life— trains a chosen attitude toward being. In his relational and activistic conception of the person which experiences values Grzegorczyk emphasizes the cognitive and analytic roles of knowing itself on each level of many-layered relational structure which is the human person. He also emphasizes the ethical role of forming the unity of the person’s nature. Defending the autonomy of the human person, Grzegorczyk approves pressure exerting by it on itself. Grzegorczyk restores the ancient dimension of ethics viewed as a theory and practice of forming itself. He rejects—after Abraham Maslow—the perspective of the psychology of deficiency, based on behaviourism and psychoanalysis. He assigns to the man a humanistic perspective of growth and excess character of living values as a main factor of human activity.

Keywords: Andrzej Grzegorczyk, ethics, Christian existentialism, values.

 

 

 

Paweł Zagożdżon

Affiliation: Medical University of Gdansk, Dębinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland

E-mail: pzagoz@gumed.edu.pl  

 

THE RELATION BETWEEN TWO PARADIGMS – THE RELIGIOUS PSYCHIATRIST

 

ABSTRACT

The difference between psychiatry and religion is narrow. Religious and spiritual beliefs frequently are involved in the clinical picture. Despite recent changes in the attitudes of academic psychiatry towards religion the historic tensions between religion and psychiatry does not always allow to include religious spirituality in psychiatric practice. Researches show that psychiatrists are less religious than other physicians, and religious physicians are less willing than nonreligious physicians to refer patients to psychiatrists. The religious psychiatrist is in a difficult position. His own religious belief is confronted with religious beliefs of his patients and with the biomedical paradigm of mental illness in psychiatry. I analyse in this paper several questions. What are the boundaries of the scientific paradigm in psychiatry? What should be the role of evangelism in psychiatric treatment? Should psychiatrists urge their patients to become Christians? When the spiritual dilemma should be viewed from the psychopathological perspective Some epidemiologic studies showed that the involvement of religious beliefs in p psychiatric treatment leads to better outcomes in patients with depression but not schizophrenia patients. The spiritual orientation is also an important aspect of the recovery in the addiction treatment.

Keywords: psychiatry, mental illness, religious beliefs, religious psychiatrist.  

 

 

 

Magdalena Łata

Affiliation: The Faculty of History, University of Warsaw, Nowy Świat 69, 00-001 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: magdalena.lata@onet.eu  

 

THE PAINTING MELANCHOLY BY JACEK MALCZEWSKI IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I analyse the painting Melancholy by Jacek Malczewski in the context of the theory of cognitive linguistics. I transfer the principles of the analysis paradigms of language – which have been studied intensively since the eighties of the twentieth century – to the field of visual art. I refer to a few key aspects of these studies, by choosing the sets which create complementary and mutually enriching content useful for the intended task. The analysis of painting is preceded by the outline of the theory of metonymy, metaphor and conceptual blends.

Keywords: metonymy, metaphor, conceptual blending theory, image schema, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Gilles Fauconnier, Mark Turner.  

 

 

 

Table of Contens 4/2016

FILOZOFIA I NAUKA
Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne
Tom 4, 2016

 

O IV tomie czasopisma FILOZOFIA I NAUKA. Studia filozoficzne i interdyscyplinarne (s. 5)

 

I. Rozdziały książki Nachmetaphysisches Denken II Jürgena Habermasa

Świat życia jako przestrzeń racji ucieleśnionych symbolicznie (s. 11)

Hipoteza na temat sensu rytuału w perspektywie historii gatunku (s. 29)

 

II. Studia i rozprawy

Paweł Bytniewski Althusser i Foucault – dwie epistemologie lektury (s. 43)

Małgorzata CzarnockaNauka konstytuowana przez interesy. O koncepcji Jürgena Habermasa (s. 61)

Konrad WaloszczykReligia i nauka w myśli Pierre’a Teilharda de Chardin (1881–1955) (s. 81)

Rafał MichalskiKoncepcja uprzestrzennionego podmiotu w filozofii Arnolda Gehlena (s. 95)

Jakub GomułkaNieintuicyjna czy niekonsekwentna teoria intencjonalności? Spór między Dennettem i Searlem ( s. 119)

Barbara TrybulecO czym myśli Microsoft? Kontrowersje wokół grupowego podmiotu poznania (s. 141)

Jarosław MrozekCzy odwrót od naturalizmu w fizyce? (s. 159)

Rafał Antoni KupczakSpojrzenie na problematykę antropogenezy w świetle sporu wokół wyników badań porównawczych działań narzędziowych małp (s. 169)

 

Blok tematyczny: FILOZOFIA NAUK SPOŁECZNYCH – TEORIA I PRAKTYKA

pod redakcją Marioli Kuszyk-Bytniewskiej

 

Mariola Kuszyk-BytniewskaWprowadzenie do bloku Filozofia nauk społecznych – teoria i praktyka (s. 189)

Krzysztof ArbiszewskiMy jako podmioty społecznie konstruowanej wiedzy. Reinterpretacje i uzupełnienia fenomenologii społecznej Petera Bergera i Thomasa Luckmanna (s. 191)

Andrzej W. NowakCzy Rwanda istnieje? Zwrot ontologiczny w studiach nad nauką i techniką i jego potencjalne aksjologiczne konsekwencje (s. 217)

Mirosław ChałubińskiLeszek Kołakowski – nieznany konstruktywista (s. 231)

 

Blok tematyczny: WOKÓŁ EWOLUCJONIZMU

 

Krzysztof ChodasewiczDobór naturalny, ewolucja kultury i paradoks Dawkinsa (s. 241)

Marcin UrbaniakFilogenetyczne uzasadnienie zjawiska rozumienia oraz wiedzy proceduralnej i deklaratywnej (s. 259)

Ignacy S. FiutPoznanie i wiedza w ewolucyjnym ujęciu Tadeusza Garbowskiego (s. 275)

 

Blok tematyczny: IDEA I TEORIA GESTALT – PRZESZŁOŚĆ I TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ

pod redakcją Stanisława Czerniaka

 

Silvia BonacchiGestalt as a Specialized Term: Its Conceptual Definition in Psychology and Philosophy (s. 295)

Danilo FaccaArystotelesowskie pojęcie formy i jego zastosowanie we współczesnej filozofii (s. 305)

Stanisław CzerniakWokół kategorialnych powiązań teorii postaci z klasyczną antropologią filozoficzną XX wieku (s. 315)

Anna MichalskaGestalt i rozwój nauki. Kuhna model zmiany naukowej w świetle teorii Gestalt (s. 327)

Jagna Brudzińska Typ jako dynamiczna struktura doświadczenia z perspektywy fenomenologii genetycznej (s. 335)

Przemysław ParszutowiczO związkach filozofii form symbolicznych z psychologią postaci (s. 349)

 

III. Polemiki i dyskusje

Stanisław CzerniakHans-Jörg Rheinberger o naturze i kulturze (s. 361)

Sławomir LeciejewskiWizualizacja i techniki notowania w naukach przyrodniczych (według Hansa-Jörga Rheinbergera) (s. 369)

 

IV. Przekłady

Arnold GehlenPrawda a irracjonalna pewność doświadczenia (s. 379)

4/2016

Paweł Bytniewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

Email: pbytniewski@tlen.pl

 

ALTHUSSER AND FOUCAULT—TWO EPISTEMOLOGIES OF READING

 

ABSTRACT

The philosophical reconstruction of texts, utterances, discourses, sciences—in this way we can formulate the task set in Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault’s works. Both the philosophers determine this task non-identically, although their paths often intersect with each other. Anyway, this kind of work includes a condition essential to meet the requirement of the purity of epistemological intentions. In the task of this kind a way of readings texts must be set it, namely the way which would allow to epistemologically criticize the matter of discourse-subject. The satisfaction of this condition would give the whole enterprise a character of a productive conception, enriching our knowledge on the way of speaking about the truths known in the history of thought. What is the “culture of the word” in which Althusser and Foucault have developed proposals for the epistemologically valid theory of reading? What is the richness of research programmes which have become the matrix of these reconstructions, and what is its concern to this culture? Critics, refutations or another way of special treatment? What the reform of the relation between significant and signifié they offer? These problems are considered in the paper.

Keywords: Althusser, Foucault, the culture of word, simptomal lecture, discourse.

 

 

 

Małgorzata Czarnocka

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: mczarnoc@ifispan.waw

SCIENCE CONSTITUTED BY INTERESTS. ON JÜRGEN HABERMAS’ CONCEPTION

 

ABSTRACT

I reconstruct and analyse Jürgen Habermas’ conception of three interests and subordinated to them three types of sciences; this conception has been presented mainly in his Knowledge and Interests (1968) and in the New Introduction to the fourth German edition of the Theory and Practice (1971). The present validity of the conception is due to its two properties. First, it includes a non-standard, alternative to today’s dominated view on the nature and role of science. Second, it is a currently rare theory of science founded anthropologically, with evolutionary theories threads, however, weakened in comparison with the consistent Darwinism by introducing the spiritual sphere, transcending biologicality.

Keywords: Jürgen Habermas, cognitive interest, the role of science.

 

 

 

Konrad Waloszczyk

Affiliation: Higher School of Firefighting, ul. Słowackiego 52/54, 01–629 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: konradw@upcpoczta.pl

RELIGION AND SCIENCE IN THE PIERRE TEILHARD DE CHARDIN WORKS (1881–1955)

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article is a concise presentation of the main traits of the Pierre Teilhard de Chardin thought with special attention to the relationship between religion and science. There is a widely accepted opinion in commentaries to Teilhard that he has done with a far going reconciliation of these domains of culture. He has shown them up as two meridians which do not merge but are bound to converge as they approach the pole. The article also contains a reply to the critique of the Teilhardian thought put forward by some philosophers and biologists: Bertrand Russell, Peter Medawar, Richard Dawkins, Władysław Kunicki–Golfinger and Zdzisława Piątek. Their contention is that a higher consciousness is not superior to the lower, and that evolution has no direction. But how can they explain that people often love to know for its own sake? And why more cerebrated and more conscious creatures appeared in evolution not randomly and not before but always after less conscious ones? Furthermore a question has been raised whether the Teilhard’s system is in some way falsifiable. The answer has been suggested that the remarkable scientific and technological progress and the greatest in the human history wave of globalization, which all took place after his death (1955), seem to confirm his ideas.

Keywords: cosmogenesis, evolution, consciousness, noosphere, religion, science, technology.

 

 

 

Rafał Michalski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

E-mail: metasis@umk.pl

THE CONCEPT OF THE SPATIALIZED SUBJECT IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF ARNOLD GEHLEN

 

ABSTRACT

The article considers the problem of subjectivity in the light of Arnold Gehlen’s philosophical anthropology and theory of institutions. The main objective of the prsened analysis is a constructive reconstruction of the theory of subjectification, present in the work of the German anthropologist in the form of a heterogeneous, often directly unrelated motifs. Describing the successive stages of subjectification, we will show that this process occurs in a “phenomenal space” of human embodiment subordinated to the requirements of action (1), and requires a support from external institutional devices. Other discussed development stages are: the sensorimotor control and regulation of drives (2), habitualization and ritualisation of human behavior (3) and institutionalization (4). The result of these processes is, according to Gehlen, the formation of character (hexis) (5) and awareness (6).

Keywords: Arnold Gehlen, philosophical anthropology, spatialized subject, imagination, language, institution, discipline, habitualization, ritualisation, consciousness.

 

 

 

Jakub Gomułka

Affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy of the Pontifical University of John Paul II in Crocow, ul. Kanonicza 9, 31-002 Crocow, Poland.

Email: jakub.gomulka@upjp2.edu.pl

COUNTERINTUITIVE OR INCONSISTENT THEORY OF INTENTIONALITY?
A DISPUTE BETWEEN DENNETT AND SEARLE

 

ABSTRACT

The paper compares the conceptions of intentionality held by the two leading figures in the contemporary philosophy of mind: John Searle and Daniel Dennett. I explain the relation between Searle’s theories in philosophy of language and his theory of intentionality and his idea of three kinds of intentionality. Then I present Dennett’s theory of intentionality as an adaptive feature and his idea of intentional stances. I underline the fact that, using Searle’s vocabulary, according to Dennett no creature or artifact possesses intrinsic intentionality — all we deal with is just derived intentionality: the intentionality the observer attributes to a being in order to form a better prediction of the being’s behavior. The consequence of this standpoint is highly counterintuitive: Dennett must (and in fact does) accept a claim that the observer’s own intentionality is also only attributed to one by some other observers in order to form better prediction of one’s behavior. This claim is rejected by Searle as an obvious absurd. I argue that Searle’s standpoint is founded on the Cartesian grounds and point to the similarity between his critique of Dennett and Husserl’s critique of naturalism. Since Searle claims his conception to be naturalistic, his theory is inconsistent.

Keywords: intentionality, naturalism, artificial intelligence, syntactic machine, John R. Searle, Daniel C. Dennett.

 

 

 

Barbara Trybulec

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, Poland 

Email: barbara.trybulec@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

WHAT DOES MICROSOFT THINK ABOUT? SOME CONTROVERSIES OVER THE GROUP AGENCY

 

ABSTRACT

The extended mind thesis is sometimes used in the argumentation for the group agency. Those who are ready to explain the behavior of some groups in terms of their intentional states argue that the system composed of many individuals can constitute an agent which is in many respects analogous to the individual cognitive subject. In the paper I argue that the choice between the individualistic and holistic perspectives with regard to the explanation of group behavior is determined by the chosen research problems. By indicating selected positions towards group intentional states I evaluate how far we can draw an analogy between individual and group agency.

Keywords: group agency, mental state, emergence, reductionism

 

 

 

Jarosław Mrozek

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism, University of Gdansk, ul. Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland.

Email: filjam@ug.edu.pl

IS THERE A RETREAT FROM NATURALISM IN PHYSICS?

 

ABSTRACT

Naturalism claims that everything that exists is Nature. There does not exist any other reality, apart from the natural one. Naturalists require that all phenomena have to be explained only by their natural causes. Natural causes are the ones that are accessible for scientific cognition. Science (physics) tries to describe this reality basing on observation and experiment as the foundation of creating theoretical constructs (theories) pertaining to natural phenomena. Mark Steiner, in his book entitled The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem, puts forward a surprising thesis that contemporary physicists in their work retreat from the naturalist vision of science because—as the author states—the real scientific activity does not comply with their basic methodological and philosophical convictions (with naturalism). To support his thesis he points to numerous cases of significant discoveries in the newest history of physics in which the decisive role was played by human imagination and not experimental facts. This way of discovering laws in contemporary physics is—in his view—antinaturalist in the sense that it relies more on human invention, on manipulating formal structures by the use of mathematical analogies than on the methods of classical empiricism. Such an approach—in his opinion—privileges a human and not naturalist (empirical) point of view. Steiner regards that it indicates a turn towards an anthropocentric viewpoint in the methodology of physics. In my view it is an over-interpretation of “natural” cognitive procedures existing in contemporary science and relying on the use of a well-known scheme: problem—hypothesis—criticism—problem modification. Moreover, Steiner’s suggestions do not match facts concerning the development of the newest cosmology in which scientific development is stimulated by using sophisticated observations.

Keywords: Mathematics, physics, structure, analogy, naturalism, anthropocentrism.

 

 

 

Rafał Antoni Kupczak

PhD, a graduate of the University of Silesia in Katowice and the Academy Ignatianum in Cracow, currently an independent researcher.

Email: rafalkupczak@wp.pl

A VIEW ON THE PROBLEM OF ANTHROPOGENESIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE DISCUSSION ON THE RESULTS OF THE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF APES TOOL ABILITIES

 

ABSTRACT

The question of the origin of human tool competence is one of the key mysteries of anthropogenesis. In recent years experiments have been carried out to verify the competence in the production of stone tools by apes. Interpretations of the results of the experiments are the source of a serious controversy both in the assessment of the tool competence of apes as well as in their extrapolation of these skills to determine the sources utilities competence of our ancestors.

Keywords: anthropogenesis, hominids tool making, primates tool making, experiments with the production of stone tools.

 

 

 

Krzysztof Abriszewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Nicholas Copernicus University, Fosa Staromiejska 1 a, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Email: krzabr@umk.pl

US – SUBJECTS OF SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED KNOWLEDGE. REINTERPRETATIONS AND EXPANSIONS OF PETER BERGER AND THOMAS LUCKMANN’S SOCIAL PHENOMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In the article I attempt to realize three tasks. First, I elaborate Peter Berger’s and Thomas Luckmann’s social ontology of knowledge, mainly by referring to the concepts of everyday lifeworld, knowledge, objectification, justification, and symbolic universe. Second, I offer two interpretations of the notion of everyday lifeworld: the first using the metaphor of a cocoon or a room, and the second using the notion of a rhizome or a metaphor of a network. Third, I argue for the extending of Berger—Luckmnann’s position with Anthony Giddens’ theory of modernity and Slavoj Žižek’s theory of ideology. Such an expanded perspective derived from phenomenological social theory would enable us—I argue—to undertake the problem-posed by Michel Foucault in his What Is Enlightenment? — of analysing ourselves as subjects of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge, social ontology of knowledge, everyday lifeworld, justification, symbolic universe, modernity, abstract systems, rhizome, ideology, desire.

 

 

 

Andrzej W. Nowak

Affiliation: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Szamarzewskiego 89 c, 60-568 Poznań, Poland

Email: andrzej.w.nowak@gmail.com

DOES RWANDA EXIST? AXIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE ONTOLOGICAL TURN IN SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY STUDIES

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to show consequences of the ontological turn in studies on science and technology. In article the author uses as a conceptual tool the concept of ontological imagination, which is a radicalization of the sociological imagination (C. W. Mills). Author analyzes three ways of interpreting the genocide in Rwanda. To avoid the relativistic deadlock he proposes a shift from the epistemocentric to ontological approach method. This shift may be defined as “ontological policies” and “ontonorms” (A. Mol). In result, ontological dimensions of axiological choices are revealed.

Keywords: ontological turn, ontological policies, social imagination, ontological imagination.

 

 

 

Mirosław Chałubiński

Affiliation: Institute of Sociology, The University of Zielona Góra, Al. Wojska Polskiego 69, 65-762 Zielona Góra, Poland.

E-mail: mirek_chalubinski@onet.pl

LESZEK KOŁAKOWSKI – AN UNKNOWN CONSTRUCTIVIST

 

ABSTRACT

The paper presents Leszek Kołakowski’s philosophy by comparing it not only with different constructivist threads in epistemology (among others, Richard Rorty’s neopragmatism and methodological anarchism), but also with Marxist revisionism (Stanisław Brzozowski, Antonio Gramsci, György Lukács). The epistemologies emphasizing an active role of the subject in cognition are here taken into account. Their common attribute is frequently scepticism and agnosticism. The paper also shows some ideological-political implications of Kołakowski’s research in the period of the Warsaw School of History of Ideas in 1955–1968.

Keywords: Leszek Kołakowski, Richard Rorty, constructivism, active role of the cognitive subject, The Warsaw School of History of Ideas, anti-fundamentalist philosophy of science, sociology of knowledge, revisionism.

 

 

 

Krzysztof Chodasewicz

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: kchodasewicz@o2.pl

NATURAL SELECTION, EVOLUTION OF CULTURE, DAWKINS’S PARADOX

 

ABSTRACT

The article analyses the concept of memetic evolution of culture, especially the concept of natural selection assumed by it. The article shows that the replicatorinteractor conception of natural selection created by Richard Dawkins requires that the memetic hypothesis includes conditions that are extremely difficult (if not impossible) to meet. This leads to a paradox: from one hand, Dawkins is the father of the concept of Darwinian evolution of culture, from the other hand, he assumes the concept of selection impeding research on this (hypothetical) phenomenon. It is more proper to think about the Darwinian evolution of culture taking as a starting point of the standard approach of natural selection (by Lewontin, Maynard Smith and Endler). I do not state if the Darwinian evolution of culture actually takes place. I examine instead the conceptual framework of reflecting on this subject. Moreover, I consider the related issue: can culture—if it indeed evolves in a Darwinian way—be considered a form of life? I do not state if culture is alive, but analyse the preliminary problems founding a reflection on this subject.

Keywords: natural selection, Dawkins, replicator-interactor approach to natural selection, memetics, definition of life.

 

 

 

Marcin Urbaniak

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, ul. Antoniego Gramatyka 8A, Cracow, Poland

Email: murbaniak78@gmail.com

PHYLOGENETIC JUSTIFICATION OF COMPREHENSION PHENOMENON AND PROCEDURAL AND DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE

 

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to justify the phenomenon of comprehension—functioning generally in Heidegger’s and Gadamer’s hermeneutics—from the perspective of naturalistically oriented philosophy. As a consequence, a naturalistic perspective is proposed — presented by Dennett, Lorenz, Wuketits, Vollmer—on the phenomenon of knowledge and the notion of knowledge functioning in the analytic tradition. More precisely, the basic aim of this article is a critical analysis of the thesis saying that even though the way of being called “comprehension” is the source of explanation by theoretical and practical knowledge, the explanation and understanding capacities are onto-cognitive structures with a phylogenetic basis. These structures emerged in the process of evolution. As a result of above reflection there is thesis: declarative knowing-that and procedural knowing-how have also their sources in the phylogenetic process. This work also attempts to clarify the notion of knowledge from a naturalistic point of view, as an alternative to the conception of knowledge presented in Plato’s Theaetetus.

Keywords: comprehension, explanation, know-how, know-that, phylogenetics, evolution, adaptation.

 

 

 

Ignacy S. Fiut

Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland.

Email: isf1949@o2.pl

LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE IN EVOLUTIONARY TERMS ACCORDING TO TADEUSZ GARBOWSKI

 

ABSTRACT

The work presents a reconstruction of Tadeusz Garbowski’s evolutionary theory of knowledge and conception of knowledge as a form of life. This Cracow philosopher introduced them in two works: The Life and Knowledge (1903), and Cognition as a biological agent (1910). According to him, human knowledge, unlike animal knowledge, is conscious. Its functioning is based on a subconscious predisposition to its acquisition, which expresses man’s “cognitive instinct”. Knowledge as a result of continuous learning is primarily an adaptive value to the natural, social and cultural conditions of life. The truth of knowledge lies in the fact that it can properly and creatively adapt to the environmental conditions. The criterion of its truth expresses the degree of experiencing successful specimens of species of living beings. On a human level criterion of its truth is a “practical utility” which gives every individual and society as a whole a decent life.

Keywords: Tadeusz Garbowski, the evolution of knowledge, biological basis of cognition, adaptive concept of truth.

 

 

 

Silvia Bonacchi

Affiliation: University of Warsaw, Department of Applied Linguistics, ul. Szturmowa 4, 02-678 Warsaw, Poland.

Email: s.bonacchi@uw.edu.pl

GESTALT AS A SPECIALIZED TERM: ITS CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

In the present paper the author attempts to reconstruct the process of terminologization of the expression Gestalt in the philosophical and psychological debates which laid the way for the emergence of the Berlin School of Gestalt Theory. Gestalt (English translations are: “form,” “shape,” “configuration,” “aspect”) is a German word, which is already documented in Old High German (gistalt) as meaning “appearance, way of appearing.” From the end of the 18th century onward, the word had a very interesting semantic enrichment and found uses in the arts and sciences, since it started to be used in specific domains (literature, philosophy, psychology) to designate an organic whole. In the first few decades of the 20th century,  it became a specialized term − a terminus technicus in philosophical and psychological thought − as Gestalt psychology and Gestalt theory emerged as a new scientific and philosophical orientation. The exact conceptual definitions of Gestalt, Gestalt qualities and Gestalt perception were heatedly discussed in the philosophical and psychological debates that raged in the first two decades of the 20th Century after the publication of the famous paper by Christian von Ehrenfels — On Gestalt Qualities (1890) — and it was developed in various psychological schools (the Berlin School, the Graz School) and philosophical orientations (phenomenology, neokantism), till the formulation in 1923 of the Gestalt laws by Max Wertheimer. In the concluding part of the paper, the author attempts to trace the development of  the Gestalt approach after the Second World War.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, terminologization, crisis of science, holism.

 

 

 

Danilo Facca

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: dfacca@ifispan.waw.pl

THE ARISTOTELIAN NOTION OF FORM AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

 

ABSTRACT

The papers analyses the Aristotelian concept of form (eidos, morphe) which is a basis of Aristotle’s philosophy. Aristotle’s critique of Plato’s conception of forms was for Aristotle a starting point for elaborating his own theory of forms. This theory provided Aristotle with a theoretical equipment applied in all the fields of scientific inquiry. So his concept of form proved to be all-pervasive. The article also deals with some recent debates, concerning the questions of sense and intellectual cognition, the problem of identity, the mind-body problem.

Keywords: Aristotle, form, correspondence theory of truth, idealism, realism

 

 

 

Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

CATEGORIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GESTALT THEORY AND CLASSICAL 20TH—CENTURY PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

In his paper the author reconstructs the categorial relations between Gestalt psychology and theory and classical 20th-century philosophical anthropology (Max Scheler, Helmuth Plessner). In the first part, entitled Inspirations, it is analysed how the views of a key 20th–century Gestalt theorist Wolfgang Köhler influenced Scheler, the author of The Human Place in the Cosmos. In part two, Parallels, the author investigates the categorial similarities between Plessner’s philosophical anthropology with its category of “eccentric position” and Gestalt theory.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, philosophical anthropology, intelligence, spirit, the whole, field, form, sensation, perception, eccentric position

 

 

 

Anna Michalska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Email: michalskanna@gmail.com

GESTALT AND SCIENCE. KUHN’S MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC CHANGE IN THE LIGHT OF GESTALT THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Thomas Kuhn advances a controversial claim that the scientific change is a form of Gestalt switch. As I point out, he did it apparently without having a full understanding of what Gestalt theory was, and used the concept of Gestalt rather metaphorically. Interestingly, however, Kuhn’s model of scientific change as sketched in The Copernican Revolution and developed in his subsequent works satisfies the desiderata of Gestalt theory. In the paper, I demonstrate that considering the Kuhnian model through the lens of Gestalt theory helps uncover its full potential and overcome certain difficulties connected to it.

Keywords: Gestalt theory, Thomas Kuhn, scientific revolution, scientific change.

 

 

 

Jagna Brudzińska

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland;  University of Cologne, Germany.

Email: jagna.brudzinska@uni-koeln.de

TYPE AS THE DYNAMIC STRUCTURE OF EXPERIENCE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF GENETIC PHENOMENOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

The article focuses on Husserl’s phenomenological philosophy as an intentionalgenetic theory of experience. I inquire into the elementary forms and principle of the organisation of subjective experiences and investigate the concepts of type and typizing apperception in the context of pre-predicative constitution. I attempt to show how far type, conceived as a concrete and acquired coherence of homogenous experiences, determines the process of interest-awakening even before higher predicative procedures, such as discursive and reflexive thinking, take place. Following such a path, phenomenology comes closer to the philosophy of life, as well as to the Gestalt theory.

Keywords: genetic phenomenology, intentionality, type, typizing apperception.

 

 

 

Przemysław Parszutowicz

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland; Gdańsk University of Technology, ul. Traugutta 79, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland.

Email: pparszutowicz@ifispan.waw.pl

ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY OF SYMBOLIC FORMS AND GESTALT THEORY

 

ABSTRACT

The concept of “symbolic pregnancy” is in the opinion of many scholars one of the key concepts in Ernst Cassirer’s philosophy of symbolic forms. Without a proper understanding of its conceptual frame Cassirer’s philosophy lacks a consistent foundation. The concept “symbolic pregnancy” offers a mechanism of the distinction of symbolic forms. The newest investigations (also on unpublished or less known, neglected writings of the philosopher) has shown that the key-notion of “symbolic pregnancy” has its roots in Gestalt Theory (Gestalt Psychology). In this school Cassirer saw the most important example of a general tendency in scientific thought, according to which the primacy of the notion of “function” had to override the primacy of the notion of “substance”, the idea of “integrated whole” the notion of “primary elements”.

Keywords: Cassirer, symbolic pregnancy, symbolic form, Gestalt Theory.

 

 

 

Stanisław Czerniak

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

E-mail: stanislaw.l.czerniak@wp.pl

HANS-JÖRG RHEINBERGER ON NATURE AND CULTURE

 

ABSTRACT

The author focuses on the leading themes of H-J. Rheinberger’s 2015 published book Natur und Kultur im Spiegel des Wissens (Nature and Culture in the Mirror of Knowledge). He mainly concentrates on the German science philosopher’s views regarding the status of contemporary natural sciences and the humanities, the fading of to-date boundaries between both fields, and especially the role the culture concept is beginning to play in today`s experimental biology.

Keywords: historical epistemology, nature, culture, natural sciences, humanities, hybrid disciplines, experimental systems, experimentation cultures.

 

 

 

Sławomir Leciejewski

Affiliation: Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szamarzewskiego 89c, 60-568 Poznan, Poland

Email: slaaw@amu.edu.pl

VISUALIZATION AND RECORDING TECHNIQUES IN NATURAL SCIENCES IN HANS-JÖRG RHEINBERGER VIEW

 

ABSTRACT

In my comment to fragments of Historical Epistemology, devoted to the problem of visualization and recording techniques in natural sciences, I refer to Peter Galison’s theses presented in his book Image and Logic: a Material Culture of Microphysics in order to analyse critically Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s claims in the context of modern experimental practice engaging computers. I answer for the question whether the theses included in the Historical Epistemology concerning visualization and recording are acceptable when they are confronted with the computer style of scientific research prevailing in experimental research since the 80-ties of the 20th century.

Keywords: historical epistemology, visualization, style of scientific research.